1.       Table below shows the proton number and the number of electrons for particles U, V, W, X and Y.


Proton number

Number of electrons
















Answer the following questions with reference to the letters given in Table above.

a)      What is meant by proton number?

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

b)      Predict the nucleon number of U?

12 or 13 or 14

c)       State the number of valence electrons in atom W.


d)      U and X are combined to form a compound.

i.                     State the formula of the compound formed.


ii.                   State the type of particles that exists in the compound formed.


2.       A student carried out an experiment to investigate the pH of a few solutions of 0.1 mol dm-3 using a pH meter. The results of the experiment are shown in Table below.











a)      Which of the solutions in table above may be

i.                     Ethanoic acid?


ii.                   Aqueous ammonia?


iii.                  Sodium chloride solution?


b)      Ethanoic acid is an example of a weak acid. What do you understand by a weak acid?

A chemical that dissolves in water and dissociates partially to produce hydrogen ions.

c)       If equal volumes of solution Q is added to solution U,

i.                     What will be the pH of the resulting solution?


ii.                   Name of type of reaction that has taken place in (c) (i).


d)      What will be the color of the solution produced if a few drops of phenolphthalein are added to solution P?


e)      Suggest how you can determine the pH of a solution other than using a pH meter.

Add a few drops of Universal indicator to the solution and compare the color produced with the standard color chart.

f)       Gastric pain is caused by excessive gastric juice.

i.                     What is the chemical present in gastric juice that causes gastric pain?

Hydrochloric acid

ii.                   Name a chemical that can be used in antacids to overcome gastric pain.


Magnesium hydroxide or aluminium hydroxide

3.       Table below shows different conditions used in Experiment I and Experiment II to investigate the factors that affect the rate of reactions of three reactions.


Equation of reaction

Experiment I

Experiment II


2H2O2 ->2H2O+O2

1mol dm-3H2O2

2 mol dm-3 H2O2


Zn+H2SO4 ->ZnSO4+H2

Without copper(II) sulphate

A few drops of copper(II) sulphate are added


S2O32-+2H+ ->SO2+S+H20

Room temperature


a)      State the factors investigated in reaction

i.                     A:

Concentration of the reactant (hydrogen peroxide)

ii.                   B:

The presence of a catalyst

iii.                  C:


b)      State a suitable hypothesis for Experiment I and Experiment II in reaction A.

The higher the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the higher the rate of reaction.

c)       State all the constant variables in Experiment I and Experiment II in reaction B.

The mass of zinc, the surface area of zinc and the concentration of sulphuric acid.

d)      Suggest a suitable method the rate of reaction for reaction C. Hence, predict the results of the measurement obtained in Experiment I and Experiment II for reaction C.

Measure the time taken for a certain amount of sulphur to form or enough sulphur formed to cover a cross marked on a piece of paper placed under the base of a conical flask with the reactants. The time taken for a certain amount of sulphur formed to cover the cross on the paper is shorter in Experiment II compared Experiment I.

4.       The heat of combustion of a fuel X is -300kJ mol-1. In an experiment, 3.92g of fuel X is burnt in air and the heat released is used to heat up 100g of water in a copper container. The increase of the water temperature is 200C.[Heat capacity of water = 4.2 J g-1 0C-1, density of water = 1g cm-3]

a)      What is meant by heat of combustion?

The heat released when 1 mol of the substance is burnt completely in excess oxygen.

b)      Calculate the heat absorbed by the water in this experiment.

Heat absorbed = 100 X 4.2 X 20 0C = 8400 J

c)       Calculate the mass of one mole of fuel X.

Combustion of 1 mol of X released 300kJ.

Number of moles of fuel X combusted = 8400/ (300 X 1000) = 0.028

Mass of 1 mol X = 3.92/0.028 = 140 g

d)      Fuel X is alkenes. Hence or otherwise, calculate the molecular formula of fuel X. [Relative atomic mass: C, 12; H, 1]

Relative molecular mass of CnH2n = 140

12n + 2n = 140

N = 10

Molecular formula of X is C10H20

e)      Write a balance equation for the complete combustion of fuel X.

C10H20 + 15O2 à 10CO2 + 10H2O

5.       Diagram below shows the steps in the preparation of zinc carbonate.

Zinc carbonate

Zinc oxide

Solution X

                         step 1                                     step 2

        à                                        à

                         add nitric acid                         add solution S     

a)      Write a balance equation for the formation of solution X.

ZnO2 + 2HO3 à Zn(NO3)2 + H20

b)      Explain briefly how to obtain sample of dry salt X.

Evaporate solution X until a saturated a solution is formed. Cool the saturated X solution until crystallization occurs. Crystal X is then filtered and dried between two pieces of filter paper.

c)       Name solution that is required to be adding to solution X to produce zinc carbonate.

Sodium carbonate / potassium carbonate

i.                     Write an ionic equation for the formation of zinc carbonate.

Zn2+ + CO32- à ZnCO3

d)      30cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 nitric acid reacts with excess zinc oxide. [Relative atomic mass: C, 12; O, 16; Zn, 65]

i.                     Calculate the number of moles of salt X that is formed.

Number of moles of salt X = ½  X 0.2 X (30/1000) = 0.003

ii.                   Calculate the mass of zinc carbonate that is produced.

Number of moles of ZnCO3 produced = number of moles of salt X

Relative molecular mass of ZnCO3 = 65+12+ (3 X 16) = 125

Mass of ZnCO3 produced = 0.003 X 125 = 0.38 g

e)      Explain how you can convert zinc carbonate back to zinc oxide.

Heat zinc carbonate strongly until it decomposes.

i.                     Write an equation for the conversion in e).

ZnCO3 à ZnO + CO2

6.       The knowledge of chemistry has led to the development of useful manufactured substances and consumer products. Table below lists some examples of the substances.



Cleaning agent

Food additive


Reinforced concrete

Sodium palmitate

Sodium Benzoate


a)      What is meant by an alloy?

An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal.

i.                     What is the composition of magnalium?

Aluminium and magnesium

ii.                   State a use of magnalium.

In making aircraft body

b)      What is added to concrete to make reinforced concrete?


i.                     What is the advantage of reinforced concrete as compared to concrete?

Stronger/higher tensile strength than concrete

c)       Palmitic acid is an example of a saturated acid. If a molecule of palmitic acid has 16 carbon atoms, write the chemical formula of sodium palmitate.


i.                     Explain why sodium palmitate is not effective as a cleaning agent in hard water.

It forms insoluble salt with magnesium and calcium ions that are present in hard water.

ii.                   A cleaning agent has a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part. Identify these two parts in the formula you have written in c).

C15H31. Hydrophobic part

COO- / COO-Na+ : Hydrophilic part

d)      What is the role of sodium benzoate as a food addictive?

To retard the growth of bacteria which cause food to decay.

i.                     Name a type of food in which sodium benzoate is added as a food addictive.

Chili sauce / soya sauce / oyster sauce / tomato sauce

7.       Table below shows the number of protons and neutrons of a few elements represented by letters P, Q, R, S and T.


Number of protons

Number of neutrons

















a)      Write the electron arrangements of atoms P and Q.

P : 2.1

Q : 2.6


b)      Calculate the number of neutrons in atom S if the nucleon number of S is 27.

Number of neutrons = 27 – 13 = 14

c)       State the atoms that exist as isotopes. Explain your answer.

Q and R because they have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.

d)      State the position of T in the Periodic Table of elements.

Group 1 and Period 4

e)      State the atoms that belong to the same group in the Periodic Table of elements.

P and T

f)       Q can combine with S to form a compound.

i.                     What type of bond is formed in this compound?

Ionic bond

ii.                   Write the formula of the compound.


iii.                  Give the relative molecular mass of the compound formed.


8.       50cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is put in a plastic cup and the initial temperature is recorded. 50cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is measured and its initial temperature is also recorded. The hydrochloric acid is added to the sodium hydroxide in the plastic cup. The mixture is stirred and the highest temperature is recorded.

Initial temperature of sodium hydroxide = 270C

Initial temperature of hydrochloric acid = 270C

Highest temperature of mixture = 390C

a)      Why is a plastic cup used in this experiment?

To reduce heat loss to the surrounding

b)      Write an ionic equation for the reaction that has taken place.

H+ + OH- à H2O

c)       Calculate

i.                     The heat change in this experiment. [Heat capacity of solution = 4.2 J g-1 0C-1]

Heat change = 100 X 4.2 X 12 = 5040 J

ii.                   The heat of neutralization in this experiment.

Number of moles of NaOH and HCI reacted = 50/1000 X 2.0 = 0.1

Heat of neutralization = -5040/0.1 J mol-1  = -50.4 kJ mol-1

d)      The heat of neutralization calculated in this experiment is less than the theoretical value. Explain this statement.

Heat is lost to the surrounding

e)      If a student accidentally splashed acid into his eye, explain why he should wash his eye with plenty of water before he neutralizes it with an alkaline solution.

Heat released from neutralization will damage his eyes. Washing his eyes with plenty of water will dilute the acid so that less heat is released.

9.       a)

i.                     State the meaning of relative atomic mass based on the carbon-12 scale.

The relative atomic mass is the mass of an element compared to 12 g of carbon-12

ii.                   State why carbon-12 is used as a standard to determine the relative atomic mass.

Carbon is a solid state at room temperature and pressure. It is also abundant in nature.

 b) i.             What is the meaning of Avogadro’s constant?       

Avogadro’s constant is the number of particles in 1 mol of a substance.

 ii.                    State the relationship between 1 mol of a substance and the number of particles with the Avogadro’s constant.

There are 6.02 X 1023 particles in 1 mol of a substance which is equal to the Avogadro’s constant.

c) i.                What is the mass of 4.0 dm3 of hydrogen gas, H2 at standard temperature and pressure? [1mol of a gas occupies 24 dm3 at standard temperature and pressure. Relative atomic mass: H, 1]

4.0 dm3 / 24 dm3 X 1 mol = 0.167 mol

Relative molecular mass of H2 = 1+1=2

Mass of H2 = 0.167 X 2 = 0.33 g

 ii.                    How many molecules are there in 4.0 g of hydrogen gas? [Avogadro’s constant: 6.02 X 1023 mol -1]

Number of moles of hydrogen gas = 4.0/2 = 2

Number of moles of hydrogen gas X 6.02 X 1023 = 1.204 X 1024 molecules

10.   a) State two changes in the physical properties of Group 17 when moving down the group in the Periodic Table.

The density is increases down the group.

The melting point increases down the group.

b)      State two similarities in the chemical properties of the elements of Group 17.

Exist as diatomic molecules.

React with water to produce acids.

c)       Write the electron arrangements for an atom of


           i.                        Chlorine: 2.8.7



         ii.                        Which of the elements in c) i) is the most reactive?


        iii.                             Give one reason for your answer in c) ii).

Chlorine is more electronegative than bromine and iodine.

d)      Write the chemical equation for the reaction between bromine and Iron (II).

Fe(s) + Br2 (g) à FeBr2(s)

11.   Table below shows the pH of solutions V, W, X, Y and Z.













a)      Which solution is a strong acid?

Solution V

  i.      Give one reason for your answer in a).

A low pH indicates strong acid.

b)      Give one property of a weak acid.

Has a pH of between 3 -4

c)       What is the meaning of a weak alkali?

An alkali that dissociates partially in water.

                i.     Which solution is a weak alkali?

Solution Y

d)      Give two physical properties of solution Z.

It tastes bitter

e)      State the role of water in solution Y.

It feels soapy

f)       Why does solution X has a pH of 7?

Solution X is a neutral solution.

g)      What are the products of the reaction between solution V and solution Z?

Salt and water

i.        What is the name of the reaction in g)?


12.   Explain the difference between a strong acid and weak acid using suitable examples. Compare the pH of these two acids of the same concentration.

An example of a strong acid is hydrochloric acid. A strong acid undergoes complete ionization to produce a high concentration of hydrogen ions. An example of a weak acid is ethanoic acid. A weak acid undergoes partial ionization in water to produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions. The concentration of hydrogen ions in hydrochloric acid is higher than that in ethanoic acid of the same concentration. The higher the concentration of hydrogen ions, the lower the pH value. The pH of hydrochloric acid is lower than the pH of etanoic acid of the same concentration.


a)      Describe an experiment to prepare a sample of dry copper(II) nitrate crystals using suitable reagents.

To prepare a sample of dry copper(II) nitrate crystals:


Copper(II) oxide powder and 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid.


Beaker, glass rod, 100 cm3 measuring cylinder, Bunsen burner, conical flask, spatula, filter funnel and filter paper.


i.                    30 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid is placed in a beaker.

ii.                  Copper(II) oxide powder is added gradually to the nitric acid in the beaker while stirring continuously with a glass rod, until a slight excess of copper(II) oxide powder is present.

iii.                The mixture is filtered to remove the excess copper(II) oxide powder.

iv.                 The filtrate is evaporated to about one-third (1/3) of its original volume.

v.                   The saturated solution is then allowed to cool to room temperature.

vi.                 The blue crystals formed are removed by filtration, rinsed with a little distilled water and dried between filter papers.

b)      Compound X is a nitrate salt. Briefly describe two experiments in which you can identify compound X in the laboratory.

Heat solid compound X strongly in a boiling tube. If a brown gas is evolved and changed damp blue litmus to red, nitrate salt is present. Dissolve a little compound X in some water in a test tube. Add a little dilute sulphuric acid, iron(II) sulphate acid slowly along the side of the test tube to the compound X solution. If a brown ring is formed in the solution, compound X is a nitrate salt.

13.   The products formed in the electrolysis of an aqueous solution depend on a few factors. Using a suitable example, describe an experiment in which you can investigate one of the factors that affect the products formed in electrolysis. Explain the expected results of the experiment with suitable equations.

One of the factors that affect the products formed in electrolysis is the concentration of ions in the electrolyte. An experiment to investigate the effect of concentration of ions of electrolyte on the products of electrolysis:


2.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) chloride solution and 0.001 mol dm-3 copper(II) chloride solution.


Batteries, electrolytic cell, carbon electrodes, ammeter, switch, connecting wires with crocodile clips and test tubes.


i.                    2.0 mol dm-3 aqueous copper(II) chloride solution is put into an electrolytic cell with carbon electrodes. Two test tubes, filled with copper(II) chloride solution are inverted over the carbon anode and cathode respectively (or show in the labeled diagram).

ii.                  The switch is turned on and electric current is allowed to flow for 15 minutes.

iii.                Any change in color of the electrolyte and any other changes that occur around the carbon electrodes are recorded.

iv.                 Step i to iii of the experiment are repeated using 0.001 mol dm-3 copper(II) chloride solution to replace the 2.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) chloride solution.

Explanation of the expected results

i.                    In the electrolysis of 2.0 mol dm-3 copper(II) chloride solution, chlorine gas is produced at the anode.

ii.                  This is because when the concentration of the chloride ions is higher than that of the hydroxide ions, chloride ions will be selectively discharged.

iii.                Equation at the anode: 2CI- à CI2 + 2e-

iv.                 In the electrolysis of 0.001 mol dm-3 copper(II) chloride solution, oxygen gas is produced at the anode.

v.                   This is because when the concentration of the chloride ions is lower than that of the hydroxide ions, hydroxide ions will be selectively discharged.

vi.                 Equation at the anode: 4OH- à O2 + 2H2O + 4e-

a)      With the help of a labeled diagram, explain the use of electrolysis in electroplating. Accompany your explanations with suitable equations.

i.                Electroplating of the iron spoon with silver is carried out where the iron spoon is made the cathode.

ii.              Pure silver is made the anode and the silver nitrate solution is the electrolyte.

iii.            When electricity is allowed to pass through, a layer of silver metal is deposited on the iron spoon.

iv.             Equations of electrolysis:

At the anode: Ag à Ag+ + e-

At the cathode: Ag+ + e- à Ag

14.   Using suitable examples, explain what is meant by isotopes.

Example: Oxygen has isotopes O-16 and O-17

Isotopes are elements which have same proton number but with different nucleon number. For example, both an isotope O-16 and O-17 has 8 protons but O-16 has 8 neutrons while isotope O-17 has 9 neutrons.

i.                 Isotopes are used widely in the fields of medicine, industry and archaeology. Choose two of the examples above in different fields. State an isotope and its use in each of the example.

In medicine: Cobolt-60 us used to kill cancer cells.

In industry: Iron-59 is used to investigate friction of steel in engine parts.

In archaeology: Carbon-14 is used to determine the age of ancient artifacts.

Elements in the same group of the Periodic Table of elements have the same chemical properties.

The chemical properties of an element depend on its electron arrangement.



Discuss the validity of the two statements above with suitable examples. Support your discussion with at least three chemical properties. Write the balanced equations for all the reactions involved in your discussion.

Lithium, sodium and potassium in Group 1 has the same chemical properties. They have one valence electron of the atoms and positive ions of charge +1 are formed in the reactions.

All Group 1 elements react with cold water to produce hydrogen gas and alkalis.

2Li + 2H2O à 2LiOH + H2

2Na + 2H2O à 2NaOH + H2

2K + 2H2O à 2KOH + H2

All Group 1 elements burn in air to form basic oxides which are white solids.

4Li + O2 à 2Li2O

4Na + O2 à 2Na2O

4K + O2 à 2K2O

All Group 1 elements burn in chlorine gas to form chlorides which are white solids.

2Li + CI2 à 2LiCI

2Na + CI2 à 2NaCI

2K + CI2 à 2KCI

15.   Using a suitable example, explain what is meant by a redox reaction in terms of oxidation numbers.

State a suitable example of redox reaction or write chemical / ionic equation.

Example: The reaction between chlorine and potassium iodide solution produces iodine and potassium chloride.

State that the species that undergoes oxidation has an increase of oxidation number.

Example: Iodide ion is oxidized to iodine because the oxidization number of iodine increased from -1 to 0.

State that the species that undergoes reduction has a decrease of oxidation number.

Example: Chlorine is reduced to chloride ion because the oxidation number of chlorine decreased from 0 to -1.

a)      The transfer of electrons takes’ place in many redox reactions. With the help of a labeled diagram, describe an experiment that you can carry out to study the redox reaction through the transfer of electrons. Predict the observation and explain the reaction that will take place in the experiment.

Experiment to show the transfer of electrons at a distance:


Any suitable oxidizing agent (example: bromine water), any suitable reducing agent (example: potassium iodide solution), any suitable electrolyte (example: dilute sulphuric acid)


U-tube, two carbon electrodes, connecting wires and galvanometer.


1.       Sulphuric acid is put in a U-tube until 1/3 full.

2.       Bromine water (or any other oxidizing agent) is put in one end of the U-tube while potassium iodide solution (or any other reducing agent) is put in the other end of the U-tube carefully.

3.       Two carbon electrodes connected by connecting wires to a galvanometer are dipped into the two solutions at the two ends of the U-tube.


The deflection of the needle of the voltmeter shows that electrons are transferred from the electrode in the potassium iodide solution to the electrode in the bromine water.

The brown color of the bromine water becomes pale.

The potassium iodide solution changes from colorless to brown.

Reactions that take place

Oxidation reaction: Br2 + 2e- à 2Br-

Reduction reaction: 2I- à I2 + 2e-

b)      Using a suitable example, explain why double decomposition is not a type of redox reaction. Give another example of reaction which is not a redox reaction.

(Any suitable example of double decomposition.)

Example: The reaction between lead(II) nitrate solution and sodium chloride solution to produce lead(II) chloride and sodium nitrate solution.

A balanced equation:

Example: Pb(NO3)2 + 2NaCI à PbCI2 + 2NaNO3

The reaction is not a redox reaction because the oxidation numbers of all the species (Pb, Na, CI and O) do not undergo any changes.

Another example of a reaction which is not a redox reaction is neutralization.

16.   Explain why the reactivity of Group 1 increases down the group whereas that of Group 17 decreases down the group.

The reactivity of Group 1 increases down the group because:

As the number of filled electron shells increases, the atomic radius increases down the group. The distance between the valence electrons and the nucleus increases, resulting in a weaker force of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron. The element is that is lower in Group 1 loses the single valence electron more easily.

The reactivity of Group 17 decreases down the group because:

As the number of filled electron shells increases, the atomic radius increases down the group. When the atomic radius increases down the group, the force of attraction between the nucleus and the electrons become weaker. The element that is lower in Group 17 has a lower tendency to accept an electron.

a)      Rubidium, Rb is below Sodium in Group 1 of the Periodic Table of elements. With observations and equations, describe the reaction between rubidium and the following substances:

i.                 Water

Rubidium will move rapidly on the surface of water and ignites producing hydrogen gas.

2Rb + 2H2O à 2RbOH +H2

ii.               Air

Rubidium will burn in air to form a white solid.

4Rb + O2 à2Rb2O

iii.              Chlorine

Rubidium will burn in chlorine gas to form a white solid.

2Rb + CI2 à 2RbCI

b)      The proton number of sodium and chlorine are 11 and 17 respectively. Explain the difference between sodium and chlorine in term of

i.                 Atomic size

Electron arrangement of Na is 2.8.1

Atomic size of sodium is bigger than that of chlorine. This is because chlorine has more protons in the nucleus than sodium. The force of attraction by the nucleus towards the valence electrons is stronger in chlorine than in sodium.

ii.               Electro negativity

Chlorine is more electro negative than sodium. This is because the atomic size of sodium is bigger than that of chlorine. The force of attraction of the nucleus towards electrons is stronger in chlorine than in sodium.

17.   State two methods can be used to measure the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

Measure the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced over a certain time interval.

Or: Rate = (Volume of carbon dioxide gas evolved)/Time

Measure the mass of calcium carbonate reacted over a certain time interval.

Or: Rate = 1/ (Time taken for a certain mass of calcium carbonate to dissolve)

a)      State all the factors that can affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

Size of calcium carbonate used.

Temperature of hydrochloric acid used.

Concentration of hydrochloric acid used.

Mass of calcium carbonate used.

b)      With the help of labeled diagram, describe a laboratory experiment that can be carried out to investigate one of the factors that affect the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.


Calcium carbonate powder, calcium carbonate chips and 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.


Conical flask, burette, stopper with delivery tube, retort stand, basin, stopwatch, measuring cylinder and electrical balance.


i.                    50 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is measured using a measuring cylinder and is put in the conical flask.

ii.                  5g of calcium carbonate powder is weighed and is weighed and is put in the acid in the flask.

iii.                Immediately, start the stopwatch once the flask is closed with a stopper connected with a delivery tube. The end of the delivery tube is placed under an inverted burette filled with water in a basin.

iv.                 The volume of the gas produced is recorded every 30 seconds.

v.                   The experiment is repeated using the same volume and concentration of hydrochloric acid and 5g of calcium carbonate chips.

c)       Explain the effect of the factor that you have investigated in 9(b) on the rate of reaction with reference to the collision theory.

Frequency of effective collision is increased.

Rate of reaction is increased.

Example of answer:

i.                    The total surface area of calcium carbonate powder is larger than calcium carbonate chips.

ii.                  The frequency of effective collisions between carbonate ions and hydrogen ions is higher when the total surface area exposed to collisions is larger.

iii.                Hence, the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate powder and hydrochloric acid is higher than that between calcium carbonate chips and hydrochloric acid.

18.   A group of students carried out an experiment to investigate the cleaning capabilities of two cleaning agents, soap and detergent in different types of water. The result of the experiment is tabulated in table below.

Conical flask




Grease cloth in 20cm3 of soap solution and 100cm3 of rain water

A lot of lather is formed and the grease on the cloth is removed


Grease cloth in 20cm3 of soap solution and 100cm3 of well water

Very little lather is formed and the cloth remains greasy


Grease cloth in 20cm3 of detergent solution and 100cm3 of well water

A lot of lather is formed and the grease on the cloth is removed

You are required to plan an experiment that is related to the observations obtained in table above. Your planning should include the following aspects:

a)      Aim of the experiment

To compare the cleaning capabilities of soap and detergent in rain water and in well water.

b)      All the variables

Manipulated variable

Types of cleaning agents.

Responding variables

Formation of lather and capability of removing grease.

Constant variables

Volume of cleaning agents and water, amount of grease on cloth.

c)       Statement of hypothesis

Detergent is a better cleaning agent than soap in removing grease in well water.

d)      List of substances and apparatus

Detergent, soap, rain water, well water, three pieces of grease cloth in the same condition, measuring cylinder and conical flasks.

e)      Procedure of the experiment

1.       100 cm3 of rain water is measured using a measuring cylinder and put in a conical flask.

2.       20 cm3 of soap solution is put in the rain water.

3.       A piece of grease cloth is put in the conical flask containing soap solution and water. The flask is stoppered and is shaken vigorously. The observation is recorded.

4.       The experiment is repeated with another piece of grease cloth using 100 cm3 of well water to replace the rain water.

5.       The experiment is repeated using a third piece of grease cloth with 100 cm3 of well water and 20 cm3 of detergent solution.

19.   What is the meaning of qualitative analysis?

Qualitative analysis is a chemical technique used to determine the identities of chemical substances present in a mixture.

a)      Describe the confirmatory test for the following ions:

i.                     Iron(II), Fe2+

Produces a light blue precipitate is potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and decolorizes potassium manganate(VII)

ii.                   Iron(III), Fe3+

Produces a blood red precipitate in potassium thiocyanate, darkblue precipitate in potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) and greenish-brown solution in potassium hexacyanoferrate(III).

iii.                  Lead(II), Pb2+

Produces a yellow precipitate in potassium iodide solution, white precipitate in potassium chloride and white precipitate in potassium sulphate.

iv.                 Ammonium, NH4+

Produces brown precipitate in Nessler reagent.

b)      Describe an experiment to study the action of heat on:

i.                     Zinc carbonate salt

5 g of zinc carbonate salt is put into a boiling tube.

The color of the salt is recorded.

The salt is heated.

The gas evolved is passed through a delivery tube into limewater in a test tube.

The changes in the limewater is recorded.

The heating is stopped when there is no further change in the boiling tube.

The color of the residue in the boiling tube is recorded.


Color change from white to yellow and back to white.

Limewater turns cloudy.

ZnCO3 à ZnO + CO2

ii.                   Lead(II) nitrate salt

In your description, state the changes in color and the evolution of gases when the salts are heated.

One spatula of Lead(II) nitrate salt is placed in a test tube.

The color of the salt is recorded.

The salt is heated.

The gas evolved is tested with a glowing wooden splint and damp blue litmus paper.

The observation is recorded.

The heating is stopped when there is no further change in the test tube.

The color of the residue in the boiling tube is recorded while it is still hot and when it is cold.


Color change from white to brown and then to yellow.

Growing splint is rekindled and blue litmus paper turns red.

2Pb(NO3)2 à 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

20.   State four uses of sulphuric acid.

1.       To manufacture fertilizers

2.       To manufacture preticides

3.       To manufacture detergents

4.       To manufacture paint pigments

i.                     Describe the stages in the manufacture of sulphuric acid in the Contact process.

Sulphur or metal sulphide is burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide, SO2

The sulphur dioxide with excess oxygen are passed through a converter using vanadium(V) oxide as the catalyst to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3

The temperature of the converter is 5500C and the pressure is 1 atm.

The sulphur trioxide is then dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to produce oleum, H2S2O7

Oleum is then diluted with an equal volume of water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4

ii.                   Discuss how sulphuric dioxide, S02 may cause environmental pollution.

Sulphur dioxide, SO2 is a poisonous and acidic gas. Inhalation of sulphur dioxide gas may cause respiratory problems such as coughing and painting. Sulphur dioxide may cause acid rain when it dissolves in atmosphere water to produce sulphurous acid, H2SO3 and sulphuric acid H2SO4. The effects of the acid rain are:

a.       The corrosion of concrete buildings

b.      The destruction of flora and fauna

c.       The decrease of pH of rivers and lakes.

21.   Plan an experiment to determine the average rate of reaction between zinc and an acid (dilute and concentrated). Your planning should include the following aspects:

a)      Aim of the experiment

To compare the average rate of reaction between zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid solution and the rate of reaction between zinc and concentrated hydrochloric acid solution.

b)      All the variables

Manipulated variable

Concentration of hydrochloric gas produced at certain period of time.

c)       Statement of hypothesis

The higher the concentration of the acid, the higher the rate of reaction. The lower the concentration of the acid, the lower the rate of reaction.

d)      List of substances and apparatus

5g of zinc powder, 25 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid, 25 cm3 of 0.01 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid, conical flask, delivery tube, burette, retort stand, beaker, water and stopwatch.

e)      Procedure of the experiment

1.       A burette is filled with water and turned upside down in a basin of water.

2.       25 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is poured into a conical flask and connected to the burette by a delivery tube.

3.       The initial meniscus of the water in the burette is recorded.

4.       5g of zinc powder is poured into the hydrochloric acid and the stopwatch is started immediately to record time taken to obtain a preset level of water in the burette.

5.       The experiment is repeated using 25cm3 of 0.01 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.

6.       The average rate of reaction is calculated by dividing the volume of the gas collected in the burette with the time taken.

f)       Tabulation of data

Concentration of acid (mol dm-3)

Preset volume of hydrogen gas (cm3)

Time taken to obtain the preset volume of hydrogen gas (s)








Comments (0) | 30-Dec-09 2:33:23 PM

Kemunculan dan Perkembangan Nasionalisme di Asia Tenggara

Imperialisme Barat di Asia Tenggara

Faktor-faktor Imperialisme Barat

  1. Kekayaan bahan mentah

  1. Asia Tenggara dengan bahan mentah seperti bijih timah, tebu, kayu jati dan kelapa.

  1. Kelebihan Asia Tenggara

  1. Asia Tenggara juga menjadi tempat tumpuan kuasa Barat kerana kedudukannya strategic iaitu terletak di antara China dan India.

  2. Penguasaan Asia Tenggara menjamin pasaran yang luas.

  1. Revolusi Perindustrian

  1. Revolusi Perindustrian di Eropah menyebabkan kuasa Barat memerlukan bekalan bahan mentah secara konsisten.

  2. Kuasa Barat juga memerlukan kawasan pasaran baru.

  1. Perkembangan dalam system pengangkutan dan perhubungan

  1. Pengunaan kapal berkuasa wap membolehkan muatan yang lebih banyak dan mempercepatkan perjalanan antara Barat dan Timur.

  2. Pembukaan Terusan Suez memendekkan jarak perjalanan di antara Barat dan Timur, menjadikan perjalanan lebih selamat serta menjimatkan kos.

  3. Penciptaan telegraf membolehkan kuasa Barat memberikan arahan kepada pengawai-pengawai dengan lebih cepat dan berkesan.

  4. Penciptaan telegraf juga memudahkan ahli-ahli perniagaan Barat berhubung dengan wakil mereka di Timur.

  1. Persaingan antara kuasa Barat dalam merebut kawasan tanah jajahan

  1. Kegiatan imperialism melambangkan kekuatan dan kekayaan sesebuah Negara.

  2. Semakin luas kawasan tanah jajahan, semakin tinggi sanjungan diterima.

  1. Beban orang putih

  1. British dan Belanda mengunakan slogan beban orang putih dalam melakukan imperialism.

  2. Kuasa-kuasa Barat ini mendakwa mereka lebih maju dan bertamadun.

  3. Mereka mempunyai tanggungjawab memimpin orang Timur ke arah kehidupan yang lebih sejahtera.

  1. Tugas menyebarkan tamadun

  1. Perancis mengunakan slogan tugas menyebarkan tamadun

  2. Perancis berasa tanggungjawab untuk mentamadunkan orang Timur.

  3. Mubaligh Kristian bertanggungjawab menyebarkan agama Kristian.

Perubahan Sistem Politik

Birokrasi Barat di Thailand

  1. Diperkenalkan oleh Raja Mongkut dan Raja Chulalongkorn.

  2. Usaha Raja Mongkut dalam melaksanakan birokrasi Barat:

  1. Melantik 80 orang penasihat Barat untuk:

  1. Mengetuai pelbagai jabatan.

  2. Melatih pegawai-pegawai tempatan.

  1. Penasihat kewangan, pelabuhan dan polis terdiri daripada penasihat Britain.

  2. Penasihat kastam dari Amerika Syarikat.

  3. Penasihat ketenteraan dari Perancis.

  1. Usaha Raja Chulalongkorn:

  1. Memperkenalkan Majlis Penasihat Rendah, Majlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi dan Kabinet Menteri

  2. Majlis Penasihat Rendah dan Majlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi sebagai badan penasihat raja dalam mentadbir Negara.

  3. Kabinet Menteri terdiri daripada golongan bangsawan berpendidikan Barat yang mengetuai kementerian.

  4. Juruaudit dari Britain dilantik untuk berkhidmat dalam perbendaharaan Negara.

  5. Golongan yang menerima pendidikan Barat dilantik sebagai pentadbir dalam birokrasi moden.

Nasionalisme Di Asia Tenggara

Maksud Nasionalisme

  1. Nasionalisme bermaksud perasaan cinta akan bangsa dan Negara yang membawa kepada gerakan membebaskan tanah air.

  2. Nasionalisme meliputi pembebasan kuasa politik, pembebasan daripada cengkaman ekonomi, dan kebudayaan asing.

Faktor-faktor Nasionalisme

  1. Dasar penjajahan Barat:

  1. Sistem Birokrasi Barat tidak memberikan peluang kepada rakyat tempatan dalam pentadbiran moden.

  2. Dasar ekonomi penjajah juga menimbulkan perasaan tidak puas hati rakyat tempatan. Rakyat tempatan kekal dalam ekonomi traditional yang serba kekurangan.

  3. Dasar penjajah mewujudkan jurang social:

  1. Penjajah menganggap mereka dalam kelas yang tersendiri.

  2. Mereka hanya berdampingan sesame sendiri.

  3. Mereka hanya bergaul dengan golongan elit tempatan yang terdiri daripada golongan bangsawan dan kakitangan kerajaan yang berpendidikan Barat.

  1. Dasar keterbukaan penjajah terhadap kemasukan imigran megakibatkan penguasaan ekonomi tempatan oleh golongan imigran.

  1. Peranan agama

  1. Agama berperanan menyatukan rakyat tempatan dalam menghadapi penindasan dan pengaruh kebudayaan Barat.

  2. Agama juga berperanan sebagai alat perpaduan rakyat.

  3. Golongan agama sebagai pencetus nasionalime.

  4. Antara pertubuhan agama yang mencetuskan nasionalisme di Asia Tenggara termasuk:

  1. Gerakan Islah di Tanah Melayu dan Indonesia.

  2. Persatuan Belia Buddha di Burma.

  1. Golongan agama Kristian di Filipina menentang Sepanyol kerana penganut Kristian tempatan dianggap kelas dua berbanding penganut Kristian berbangsa Sepanyol.

  1. Peranan karya kesusasteraan:

  1. Novel dan cerpen merupakan antara karya kesusasteraan yang mencetuskan gerakan nasionlisme. Contohnya:

  1. Noli Me Tangere karya Jose Rizal di Filipina.

  2. Puteri Gunung Tahan karya Pak Sako di Tanah Melayu.

  3. Kerikil-kerikil Tajam dan Ke Makam Bonda karya Chairil Anuar di Indonesia.

  1. Karya-karya ini menyampaikan mesej kesengsaraan dan kekecewaan terhadap penindasan penjajah.

  2. Karya-karya ini juga membangkitkan kesedaran bangsa dan cinta tanah air.

  3. Novel Noli Me Tangere menjadi inspirasi terhadap gerakan nasionalisme di Asia Tenggara.

  1. Sistem pendidikan:

  1. Penjahan mengamalkan sikap pilih kasih dalam menyediakan kemudahan pendidikan.

  2. Penjajah mengutamakan sekolah yang menggunakan bahasa penjajah sebagai bahasa pengantar.

  3. Kemudahan pendidikan terhadap kepada golongan elit dan penduduk Bandar.

  4. Penjajah hanya menyediakan pendidikan rendah.

  5. Sistem pendidikan penjajah memecahkan perpaduan rakyat tempatan.

  6. Pendidikan secular dan pendidikan mubaligh mengancam sekolah Buddha di Burma.

  7. Pelajar-pelajar lepasan sekolah vernacular sukar mendapat pekerjaan.

  1. Kemunculan golongan intelek

  1. Terdiri daripada golongan yang melanjutkan pendidikan ke Barat dan Asia Barat.

  2. Golongan intelek menuntut taraf hidup bangsa dibela dan menuntut pembebasan tanah air.

  1. Peranan media massa:

  1. Menyemarakkan semangat nasionalisme.

  2. Menyebarkan idea-idea nasionalis.

  3. Menanam perasaan anti penjajahan.

  4. Antara akhbar yang penting ialah:

  1. Al-Ikhwan

  2. Saudara

  3. Warta Malaya

  4. Majlis

  1. Perkembangan system pengangkutan dan penghubungan:

  1. Perkhidmatan telefon dan telegraf memudahkan hubungan dalam kalangan nasionalis.

  2. Jalan raya dan jalan kereta api dapat menghubungkan kawasan-kawasan.

  3. Perkembangan ini memudahkan pertemuan antara rakyat dan para nasionalis untuk membincangkan idea-idea nasionalisme.

  1. Factor pengaruh luar:

  1. Kejayaan Jepun menewaskan China dan Rusia membuktikan keupayaan Negara kecil mengalahkan Negara besar.

  2. Perjuangan kemerdekaan Mahatma Gandhi di India memberikan inspirasi kepada nasionalis di Negara-negara Asia Tenggara.

Perkembangan Nasionalisme

Gerakan Nasionalisme di Indonesia





Raden Adjeng Kartini



Tumpuan terhadap isu pendidikan.

Pendidikan dapat mengubah nasib rakyat Indonesia.

Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Bentuk dan corak

Bersifat sederhana.

Mendedahkan kemunduran rakyat Indonesia dan penindasan oleh penjajah Belanda melalui karya seperti Habis Gelap Terbitlah Terang dan Penulisan Seorang Puteri Jawa

Bersifat radikal.

Mengunakan cara kekerasan.

Pertubuhan dan perjuangan


Matlamat pertubuhan:

  1. Menyebarkan Islam yang sebenar

  2. Menghindari ancaman sekularisme Barat dan agama Kristian

  3. Membina sekolah, klinik, dan masjid

Parti-parti politik radikal:

  1. Sareket Islam

  2. Parti Komunis Indonesia

  3. Parti Nasional Indonesia

Matlamat parti: Kemerdekaan Indonesia

Tindakan pemerintah

Menangkap pemimpin yang radikal.

Mengharam PNI.

Gerakan Nasionalisme di Filipina





Jose Rizal

Andres Bonifacio


Filipina dijadikan wilayah Sepanyol.

Hak yang sama bagi bangsa Filipina.

Rakyat Filipina diberikan kebebasan bersuara.

Kemerdekaan Filipina.

Penyatuan rakyat Filipina.

Bentuk dan corak

Gerakan Dakyah

Bersifat radikal.

Kemerdekaan melalui revolusi.


Pertubuhan dan perjuangan

Liga Filipina.

Matlamat perjuangan:

Mendesak kerajaan Sepanyol melakukan pembaharuan politik, ekonomi, dan social.


Matlamat perjuangan:

  1. Mencapai kemerdekaan Filipina.

  2. Menyatukan bangsa Filipina.

Tindakan pemerintah

Tindakan Sepanyol:

Jose Rizal ditangkap dan dibuang negeri ke Dapitan di Mindanao.

Jose Rizal dikenakan hukuman bunuh dalam gerakan pemberontakan.

Tindakan Amerika Syarikat:

Tidak mengesahkan pengistiharaan kemerdekaan Filipina.

Membenarkan penubuhan parti-parti politik sederhana.

Melantik Sergio Osmena mengetuai Dewan Perhimpunan.


Perjuangan Pemimpin Tempatan Menentang British

Sebab-sebab Penentangan:

Sebab-sebab Penentangan


  1. Dasar penaklukan British

  1. Bertujuan untuk mengukuhkan kedudukan politiknya.

  2. Melakukan penaklukan terhadap daerah di Naning, Pahang, Kelantan, Terengganu, Sabah dan Sarawak.

  3. Daerah Naning dipaksa:

  1. Menjadi jajahan takluk British.

  2. Membayar ufti.

  1. Eksploitasi British terhadap ekonomi tempatan

  1. Dilakukan melalui perjanjian dengan pemimpin tempatan.

  2. Saudagar Negeri-negeri Selat menjalankan perlombongan dan perdagangan bijih timah.

  1. Pelaksanan system pentadbiran Barat

  1. British memperkenalkan :

  1. Sistem cukai

  2. Undang-undang Barat

  3. Peraturan-peraturan tanah

  1. Syarat membuka tanah:

  1. Perlu medapatkan keizinan

  2. Membayar cukai tanah

  1. Campur tangan British dalam adat resam tempatan

  1. Memaksa penduduk tempatan menerima nilai-nilai British.

  2. J.W.W. Birch tidak membenarkan pembesar Melayu Perak mengamalkan pengunaan orang suruhan.

  1. Pembesar tempatan kehilangan kuasa dan pengaruh

  1. Pemimpin tempatan kehilangan kuasa dan pengaruh pentadbiran, perundangan, ekonomi, dan social.

  1. Kesulitan penduduk tempatan

  1. Undang-undang British menyulitkan kehidupan rakyat tempatan.

  2. Kesetiaan kepada pembesar tempatan sebagai ketua mendorong mereka memberikan kerjasama untuk menentang British.

Gerakan Nasionalisme Sehingga Perang Dunia Kedua

Factor-faktor Pemangkin Nasionalisme

  1. Pengenalan system politik Barat.

  1. Memusnahkan system politik traditional tempatan.

  2. Residen memgambil alih kuasa pentadbiran negeri.

  3. Pegawai British dilantik bagi menggantikan pembesar.

  4. Penjajahan British menjatuhkan maruah mereka.

  1. Sistem pendidikan Inggeris dan vernakular Melayu.

  1. Melahirkan golongan yang mampu berfikir tentang kemajuan bangsa.

  2. Mereka menyumbangkan tenaga dan fikiran untuk menyedarkan bangsa Melayu.

  3. Mereka menggunakan idea baru untuk memajukan diri dan bangsa.

  4. Mereka menolak penjajahan British.

  1. Dasar British

  1. British mengamalkan dasar liberal terhadap kemasukan orang asing.

  2. Bilangan orang asing meningkat.

  3. Orang asing menimbulkan persaingan kepada penduduk tempatan.

  4. Orang asing menguasai ekonomi dalam bidang perlombongan dalam bijih timah dan perladangan getah.

  5. Orang Melayu terbiar oleh penjajah dan kekal dengan pertanian padi.

  6. Pembangunan yang tidak seimbang antara Bandar dengan luar Bandar menjadikan lagi jurang taraf hidup antara penduduk.

  1. Pendudukan Jepun

  1. Pendudukan Jepun menjadi pemangkin terhadap gerakan nasionalisme di Tanah Melayu.

  2. Kesengsaraan hidup dan kekejaman pentadbiran Jepun menambahkan lagi penduduk membenci penjajahan Barat dan Timur.

  1. Penguasaan Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM)

  1. Memerintah dengan kejam

  2. Menangkap dan membunuh sesiapa yang dianggap menyokong Jepun.

  3. Mencetuskan konflik perkauman.

  1. Kemunculan mesin cetak

  1. Membantu menyebarkan ilmu pengetahuan dan mendorong penentangan terhadap British.

  2. Idea-idea penentangan penjajahan disebarkan melalui buku, akhbar, majalah, dan lain-lain.

  1. Gerakan Pan-Islamisme

  1. Dipelopori oleh Syeikh Muhammad Abduh.

  2. Idea beliau disebarkan dalam majalah al-Manar.

  3. Gerakan ini membangunkan pemahaman yang lebih progesif terhadap Islam untuk menentang penjajahan Barat terhadap Negara-negara Islam.

  1. Kesedaran politik serantau

  1. Kesedaran politik di Indonesia mempengaruhi gerakan nasionalisme di Tanah Melayu.

  2. Karya-karya tentang idea kebebasan dan anti penjajahan dibawa masuk ke Tanah Melayu.

  3. Kemasukan orang Indonesia memudahkan penerimaan unsur kegiatan nasionalisme Indonesia di Tanah Melayu.

Gerakan Islah Dalam Meningkatkan Minda Bangsa

  1. Gerakan Islam merupakan gerakan yang berusaha mendorong masyarakat Melayu supaya membetulkan pandangan mereka terhadap Islam.

  2. Gerakan ini dipelopori oleh tokoh seperti Sheikh Tahir Jalaludin, Syed Syeikh al-Hadi, dan Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmy.

  3. Golongan ini dikenal sebagai Kaum Muda.

  4. Idea perjuangan Gerakan Islah:

  1. Menjana ajaran Islam dari sudut Kemajuan dunia.

  2. Memajukan ekonomi, pendidikan, politik, dan social orang Melayu.

  3. Menyematkan sikap mengkritik penjajah ke dalam fikiran orang Islam.

  4. Mengkritik raja dan pembesar Melayu yang tidak berperanan penting dalam memajukan orang Melayu.

  1. Aktiviti-aktiviti Gerakan Islah:

  1. Menerbitkan akhbar dan majalah seperti al-Iman, Neracha, Idaran Zaman, dan Pengasuh untuk menyebarkan idea perjuangannya.

  2. Menubuhkan madrasah untuk:

  1. Menjalankan system pendidikan Islam

  2. Mengajar ilmu hisab

  3. Mengajar bahasa Inggeris

  1. Madrasah ini juga memberikan peluang kepada pelajar untuk mendapatkan pendidikan.

  1. Faktor-faktor Gerakan Islah sukar berkembang di negeri-negeri Melayu:

  1. Ditentang oleh Kaum Tua.

  2. British mengeluarkan undang-undang bagi menghalang pengaruh Kaum Muda.

  3. Tidak membenarkan sebarang kegiatan dakwah dilakukan tanpa kebenaran Sultan.

  4. Tidak membenarkan risalah dan buku Kaum Muda dibawa masuk ke negeri-negeri Melayu.

Akhbar, Majalah dan Novel: Penggerak Kesedaran Kebangsaan




Warta Malaya

Lembaga Malaya


Utusan Melayu

Warga Negara

Fajar Sarawak

Majalah Guru


Bulan Melayu

Keris Melaka

Anak Mat Lela Gila

Putera Gunung Tahan

Melor Kuala Lumpur

  1. Isu yang dibincangkan oleh Majalah Guru:

  1. Pendidikan anak-anak Melayu.

  2. Memajukan bahasa dan sastera Melayu.

  3. Menyeru perpaduan dalam kalangan orang Melayu.

  4. Menggalakkan perpaduan dalam kalangan guru sebagai pemimpin bahasa.

  5. Meniupkan semangat cinta akan Negara dan menentang penjajahan.

  6. Membaiki taraf hidup orang Melayu.

  1. Isu yang dibangkitkan oleh Pengasuh:

  1. Menggalakkan pendidikan dalam kalangan orang Melayu.

  2. Memperluaskan ilmu dalam semua ilmu pengetahuan.

  3. Memberikan pentafsiran kepada persoalan orang Islam.

  4. Menggesa orang Melayu menghindarkan diri daripada sifat buruk.

  1. Isu yang dibangkitkan oleh Bulan Melayu:

  1. Menggalakkan kaum wanita mendapatkan pendidikan.

  2. Menggalakkan wanita menjadi obor bagi memajukan bangsa.

  3. Menggalakkan perpaduan dalam kalangan guru perempuan Melayu Johor.

  4. Wanita perlu menjaga kesopanan berteraskan nilai-nilai Islam dan budaya Timur.

Perjuangan Nasionalisme oleh Persatuan-persatuan Melayu

  1. Persatuan Sahabat Pena Malaya (PASPAM)

  1. Dipimpin oleh golongan cerdik pandai Pulau Pinang.

  2. Antara pemimpinnya S.M. Zainal Abidin B.A.

  1. Tujuan penubuhan PASPAM:

  1. Menggalakkan ahlinya berkenal-kenal

  2. Menggalakkan ahlinya bertukar-tukar pendapat bagi memajukan diri sendiri dan bangsa.

  1. PASPAM tidak bersifat politik tetapi tertumpu pada kegiatan-kegiatan social.

  2. PASPAM mendapat sambutan dalam kalangan orang Melayu kerana:

  1. Organisasi kemas

  2. Mempunyai perlembagaan sendiri

  1. Kepentingan penubuhan PASPAM:

  1. Merupakan asas kepada kesedaran perpaduan Melayu.

  2. Penubuhannya secara tidak langsung menggalakkan perpaduan dan persaudaraan orang Melayu di seluruh Semenanjung Tanah Melayu.

Bagaimanakah Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) membantu Jepun

  1. Bekerjasama dengan Jepun untuk menghalau British.

  2. Menjadikan KMM sebagai badan propaganda Jepun

  3. Membelikan akhbar Warta Melayu dan menjadikannya sebagai alat propaganda anti-British.

  4. Melawat merata-rata tempat di Tanah Melayu bagi mendapatkan sokongan.

  5. Menubuhkan cawangan KMM bagi meluaskan propaganda menentang British.

  6. Maahad II Ihya Assyarif di Gunung Semanggol, Perak, menyediakan kader-kader yang dikenal sebagai tentera semut untuk menentang British.


Latar Belakang Pembinaan Negara dan Bangsa


Masyarakat Melayu Tradisional

  1. Konsep kerajaan:

  1. Kemunculan kerajaan disebabkan oleh adanya raja.

  2. Kedudukan raja tinggi dan istimewa.

  3. Raja bertanggungjawab:

  1. Memberikan perlindungan politik kepada rakyat.

  2. Menjamin keselamatan rakyat.

  1. Sempadan kerajaan atau wilayah ditentukan oleh kesetiaan rakyat terhadap raja.

  2. Dalam membentuk empayar, kerajaan yang kuat menakluk atau menaungi kerajaan lain yang lemah.

  1. Konsep negeri:

  1. Negeri bererti kawasan.

  2. Contoh:negeri Larut, negeri Krian, negeri Bernam.

Zaman Penjajahan British

  1. British merujuk setiap kerajaan Melayu sebagai negeri.

  2. British menetapkan sempadan setiap kerajaan.

  3. Konsep kerajaan digantikan dengan konsep negeri.

  4. British berusaha membentuk Negara dan bangsa yang moden melalui:

  1. Malayan Union 1946

  2. Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1948

  1. Pada tahun 1957, British memberikan kemerdekaan kepada Persekutuan Tanah Melayu. Lahirnya sebuah Negara baru yang merdeka.

  2. Pada tahun 1963, pembentukan Persekutuan Malaysia yang menggabungkan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, Sarawak, dan Sabah.

Konsep Bangsa Malaysia

  1. Dikemukakan oleh Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad pada tahun 1991.

  2. Ciri-ciri bangsa Malaysia:

  1. Terdiri daripada masyarakat berbilang kaum.

  2. Berlainan bahasa.

  3. Berlainan budaya.

  4. Berlainan kepercayaan.

  5. Berlainan pendapat terhadap keduniaan.

  1. Cara pembentukan bangsa Malaysia:

  1. Penggunaan satu bahasa kebangsaan.

  2. Pengamalan kebudayaan kebangsaan.

  3. Pengamalan Rukun Negara.

Pembinaan Negara dan Bangsa

  1. Cara Count Camillo Benso di Cavour membentuk Negara dan bangsa Itali:

  1. Menghalau orang Austria dari Itali.

  2. Menggunakan amalan realpolitik.

  3. Menyanjung penyatuan Itali berteraskan pemerintahan monarki.

  4. Menjalinkan kerjasama dengan Napoleon III.

  5. Mengadakan pungutan suara.

  6. Membantu Prusia menewaskan Austria.

  7. Mendapat kembali wilayah Venetia.

  8. Menyatukan Rom dan Itali apabila Perancis berundur dari Rom.

  1. Cara Otto Eduard Von Bismarck membentuk Negara dan bangsa Jerman:

  1. Mengamalkan realpolitik.

  2. Mengamalkan politik darah dan besi.

  3. Menggunakan pelbagai taktik untuk mencetuskan peperangan seperti:

  1. Tipu helah

  2. Pemalsuan dokumen

  3. Provokasi

  4. Penipuan

  5. Ugutan

  1. Menganjurkan system kediktatoran untuk menyatukan Jerman.

  2. Menggunakan isu membenci kuasa asing untuk membangkitkan semangat rakyat Prusia.

  3. Melancarkan tiga peperangan menentang Denmark, Austria, dan Perancis untuk menyatukan Jerman.

  1. Pembentukan kerajaan Islam Madinah:

  1. Berdasarkan prinsip Islam.

  2. Nabi Muhammad S.A.W. menyusun perlembagaan terlebih dahulu sebelum mengasaskan kerajaan Islam Madinah.

  3. Perlembagaan Madinah Berjaya menyatukan penduduk Madinah yang berbilang kaum.

  4. Baginda membentuk kerajaan Islam Madinah melalui cara diplomasi, musyawarah, dan permuafakatan.

  5. Pembentukan kerajaan Islam Madinah disebabkan oleh wujudnya amalan kerjasama dan permuafakatan antara pemimpin dengan rakyat.

  1. Pembentukan Negara dan bangsa Malaysia:

  1. Berjaya dibentuk hasil kebijaksanan pemimpin Negara.

  2. Dibentuk tanpa melibatkan pertumpuan darah.

  3. Kemerdekaan Negara tercapai melalui cara:

  1. Rundingan.

  2. Pakatan murni antara kaum.

  3. Tolak ansur antara kaum.

Kesultanan Melayu Melaka – Asas Pembentukan Negara dan Bangsa

Ciri-ciri Negara dan Bangsa dalam Kesultanan Melayu Melaka

  1. Wilayah pengaruh:

  1. Wilayah ialah kawasan tempat tinggal rakyat.

  2. Wilayah pengaruh merujuk kepada kawasan yang rakyatnya memperakui pemerintahan seorang raja.

  3. Kesultanan Melayu Melaka memiliki kawasan lingkungan pengaruh yang luas.

  4. Kawasan Kesultanan Melayu Melaka meliputi keseluruhan Semenanjung Tanah Melayu dan seluruh timur Sumatera.

  1. Kedaulatan:

  1. Kedaulatan merujuk pada kekuasaan yang dimiliki oleh seseorang pemerintah atau Negara.

  2. Kedaulatan juga bermaksud kekuasan tertinggi terhadap rakyat sesebuah wilayah.

  3. Kedaulatan dalam konteks Kesultanan Melayu Melaka dirujuk terus kepada raja yang memerintah.

  4. Raja yang memerintah mewakili kawasan pemerintahan.

  1. Lambang Negara:

  1. Lambang merupakan simbol yang dijadikan identity sesebuah Negara.

  2. Antara lambing warisan Kesultanan Melayu Melaka ialah:

  1. Sistem pemerintahan beraja

  2. Adat istiadat Melayu

  3. Bahasa Melayu

  4. Agama Islam

  1. Alat kebesaran diraja Kesultanan Melayu Melaka terdiri daripada:

  1. Alat regalia

  2. Nobat

  3. Warna

  4. Bahasa

  5. Undang-undang

  6. Protokol dan adat-istiadat istana

  1. Keunggulan undang-undang:

  1. Kesultanan Melayu Melaka mempunyai dua sumber undang-undang bertulis

  2. Undang-undang tersebut ialah Hukum Kanun Melaka dan Undand-undang Laut Melaka

  3. Kedua-dua undang-undang tersebut dipengaruhi oleh hokum adat tempatan dan agama Islam

  1. Kerajaan:

  1. Pada zaman Kesultanan Melayu Melaka, sultan menjadi pemerintah tertinggi

  2. Baginda dibantu oleh Bendahara, Penghulu, Bendahari, Temenggung, dan Laksamana

  3. Pembesar-pembesar ini menjadi tonggak institusi kerajaan

  4. Kesultanan Melayu Melaka mengamalkan Sistem Pembesar Empat Lipatan

  1. Rakyat:

  1. Rakyat ialah seluruh penduduk bagi sesebuah wilayah

  2. Pada zaman Kesultanan Melayu Melaka, rakyat bertanggungjawab untuk mentaati raja yang memerintah

  3. Cara rakyat menunjukkan taat setia kepada pemerintah:

  1. Bersedia mempertahankan Negara

  2. Menghadiri adat istiadat negara

  3. Mengadakan gotong royong

  4. Menjalankan kerahan tenaga

Warisan Negeri-Negeri Melayu

Johor – Undang-undang Tubuh Kerajaan Johor

  1. Sultan Abu Bakar memperkenalkan perlembaan bertulis Johor pada tahun 1895

  2. Perlembagaan bertulis ini dinamakan undang-undang Tubuh Kerajaan Johor

  3. Pemerint ah Johor menggubal perlembagaan bertulis ini dengan tujuan:

  1. Membentuk kerajaan bercorak demokrasi bagi menggantikan pemerintahan raja berkuasa mutlak

  2. Memantapkan sistem pemerintahan Johor

  3. Menghalang rancangan British menguasai negeri Johor

  1. Perlembagaan ini digubal berasaskan perlembagaan Barat.

  2. Perlembagaan bertulis ini mengandungi pelbagai aspek pentadbiran

  3. Keturunan Sultan sebagai pewaris takhta

  4. Pengiktirafan orang Melayu sebagai rakyat Johor

  5. Agama Islam sebagai agama negeri Johor.

  6. Raja Johor hendaklah:

  1. Berbangsa Melayu

  2. Lelaki

  3. Beragama Islam

  4. Merupakan waris pemerintah Johor

  1. Raja, Menteri, dan Jemaah Pangkuan Negeri dilarang menyerahkan negeri kepada kuasa atau kerajaan lain

  2. Raja berkuasa memilih Menteri Besar

  3. Naib Menteri Besar ditentukan oleh Jemaah Menteri dengan perkenaan Sultan.

  4. Majlis Mesyuarat kerajaan Johor dibahagikan kepada Majlis Negeri dan Jemaah Menteri

  5. Majlis Negeri mempunyai kuasa perundangan

  6. Majlis Negeri dipengerusi oleh Menteri Besar sebagai Yang Dipertua

  7. Majlis Negeri membantu Raja dan Jemaah Menteri dalam urusan memerintah negeri

  8. Anggota Jemaah Menteri berjumlah lapan hingga dua belas orang

  9. Anggota Jemaah Menteri terdiri daripada pengawai kanan kerajaan yang menjadi ahli Majlis Negeri.

  10. Syarat menjadi anggota Jemaah Menteri mengikut Perlembagaan Johor 1895:

  1. Berbangsa Melayu

  2. Beragama Islam

  3. Merupakan rakyat Johor

  1. Semua pegawai kanan yang menganggotai Jemaah Menteri perlu mengangkat sumpah dan memberikan taat setia kepada Raja serta kerajaan Johor

  2. Persidangan Jemaah Menteri:

  1. Diadakan sebulan sekali

  2. Diadakan pada bila-bila masa sahaja dengan syarat-syarat berikut:

  1. Dikehendaki oleh Raja

  2. Diminta oleh Menteri Besar atau Naib Menteri Besar

  3. Permintaan tiga orang ahli Jemaah Menteri

Negeri Kelantan – Sistem Jemaah Menteri

  1. Sistem Jemaah Menteri di Kelantan telah diamalkan sejak pemerintahan Sutan Muhammad I

  2. Baginda melantik beberapa orang pembesar dalam membantu pemerintahan Kelantan.

  3. Sultan Muhammad II membentuk sistem Jemaah Menteri untuk melicinkan pentadbiran.

  4. Terdapat lapan badan Jemaah Menteri.

  5. Setiap Jemaah Menteri dianggotai oleh empat orang pembesar.

  6. Jemaah Penasihat raja menguruskan perkara dan urusan penting yang bukan rahsia.

  7. Jemaah Menteri Istana menguruskan istiadat diraja dan istiadat rasmi seluruh negeri Kelantan.

  8. Jemaah Menteri Keadilan dan Kehakiman mengendalikan hal mengenai keadilan dan kehakiman.

  9. Jemaah Menteri Dalam Negeri bertanggungjawab menjaga keamanan negeri.

  10. Jemaah Menteri Luar mengendalikan dasar dan hal ehwal luar negeri.

  11. Jemaah Menteri Perbendaharaan menguruskan harta benda dan hasil mahsul.

  12. Jemaah Menteri Peperangan mengendalikan pertahanan dan keamanan negeri.

  13. Jemaah Menteri Pentadbiran dan Pengimarahan Negeri menguruskan kemajuan dan pembangunan negeri.

Negeri Sembilan – Prinsip Demokrasi dan Konsep Persekutuan

  1. Negeri Sembilan merupakan negeri Melayu pertama yang membentuk pemerintahan mirip persekutuan.

  2. Negeri Sembilan mengamalkan sistem pemerintahan mengikut Adat Perpatih yang mempunyai cirri berikut.

  1. Kedaulatan berada di tangan rakyat.

  2. Pelantikan pemimpin dibuat daripada peringkat bawah.

  1. Anah buah memilih Buapak.

  2. Buapak memilih Lembaga

  3. Lembaga memilih Undang

  4. Undang memilih Yang Dipertuan Besar

  1. Mempunyai unsure demokrasi

  2. Mementingkan permuafakatan dan semangat kerjasama antara suku semasa memilih pemimpin.

  3. Tidak memgamalkan kuasa mutlak.

  4. Mengagihkan kuasa pemerintahan kepada individu memgikut peringkat.

  1. Cara memilih pemimpin dan kuasa pemimpin:

  1. Yang Dipertuan Besar

  1. Dilantik oleh empat puak iaitu Undang

  2. Baginda merupakan pemerintah tertinggi Negeri Sembilan

  3. Baginda tidak berhak melantik pembesar

  4. Setiap keputusan baginda adalah hasil perundingan dengan Undang.

  5. Pelantikan pembesar dibuat oleh Undang, Lembaga, Buapak dan Anak Buah.

  1. Undang

  1. Undang ialah ketua setiap luak

  2. Terdapat empat luak yang utama iaitu Rembau, Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, dan Johol.

  3. Undang dipilih oleh Lembaga

  4. Undang berkuasa melantik Yang Dipertuan Besar

  1. Lembaga

  1. Lembaga merupakan ketua suku anggota masyarakat.

  2. Lembaga dilantik oleh Buapak

  3. Lembaga memilih Undang

  4. Lembaga bertanggungjawab terhadap suku masing-masing

  1. Buapak

  1. Buapak merupakan Ketua Perut

  2. Buapak dipilih Anak Buah

  3. Buapak menjadi tempat rujukan bagi masalah yang berkaitan dengan adat.


Malayan Union

  1. Malayan Union diisytiharkan pada 1 April 1946 oleh penjajah British di King’s House, Kuala Lumpur.

  2. Sir Edward Gent dilantik sebagai Gabenor British pertama Malayan Union.

  3. Malayan Union menggantikan Pentadbiran Tentera British.

Sebab-sebab British memperkenalkan Malayan Union

  1. Sebagai persediaan Tanah Melayu kea rah pemerintahan sendiri.

  2. Melicinkan pentadbiran Tanah Melayu.

  3. Menjimatkan kos pentadbiran.

  4. British berhasrat membentuk sebuah bangsa Malayan Union.

  5. Malayan Union membolehkan golongan pendatang melupakan Negara asal mereka.

  6. Malayan Union membolehkan kaum pendatang menumpukan taat setia kepada Tanah Melayu.

  7. British dapat memastikan sumber tenaga dan pelaburan untuk kemajuan Tanah Melayu.

  8. Malayan Union dapat memjamin penguasaan secara berterusan British terhadap ekonomi Tanah Melayu.

  9. Malayan Union bertujuan mengurangkan kuasa politik orang Melayu.

  10. Malayan Union sebagai usaha British untuk menghapuskan Negara dan bangsa orang Melayu.

Ciri-Ciri Perjanjian Malayan Union 1946

  1. Menyatukan semua negeri di Tanah Melayu dalam satu unit pentadbiran.

  2. Singapura diasingkan kerana kedudukannya sebagai pelabuhan bebas.

  3. Gabenor British mengetuai pentadbiran Malayan Union.

  4. Membentuk Majlis Eksekutif dan Majis Undangan Malayan Union.

  5. Raja-raja Melayu menjadi ahli Majlis Raja-raja Melayu tanpa sebarang kuasa pentadbiran.

  6. Majlis Raja-raja Melayu hanya membincangkan soal agama Islam dan adat istiadat Melayu.

  7. Pemberian kerakyatan Malayan Union:

  1. Mengikut prinsip jus soli iaitu kerakyatan diberikan kepada sesiapa yang dilahirkan di Tanah Melayu dan Singapura.

  2. Kewarganegaraan sama rata kepada semua kaum.

  1. Seorang Pesurujaya Negeri dilantik bagi setiap negeri sebagai ketua pentadbir.

  2. Malayan Union merupakan sebuah kesatuan yang dikuasai oleh sebuah pemerintah pusat yang kuat.

Reaksi terhadap Malayan Union

  1. Pelbagai reaksi penduduk Tanah Melayu terhadap pengisytiharaan Malayan Union:

  1. Majoriti orang Melayu menentang Malayan Union.

  2. Sebilangan kecil kumpulan golongan Melayu radikal dan orang dagang menyokong Malayan Union.

  1. Sebab-sebab orang Melayu menentang Malayan Union:

  1. Tindakan Sir Harold MAcMichael mengugut Raja-raja Melayu akan diturunkan takhta jika menolak Malayan Union.

  2. Sultan-sultan tidak diberikan masa yang mencukpi untuk berunding dengan Majlis Mesyuarat Negeri.

  3. Terdapat sultan yang menyetujui Perjanjian Malayan Union atas dasar setia kawan kepada British.

  4. Malayan Union menghakiskan kuasa Raja-raja Melayu.

  5. Raja-raja Melayu kehilangan takhta dan kredibiliti sebagai ketua orang Melayu.

  6. Pelaksanaan Malayan Union mengakibatkan orang Melayu kehilangan warisan tamadun Melayu yang dibina sejak zaman Kesultanan Melayu.

Tindakan Orang Melayu menentang Malayan Union



  1. Melalui akhbar-akhbar Melayu

Utusan Melayu, Majlis, dan Warta Negara telah menyuarakan bantahan secara berterusan terhadap Malayan Union.

  1. Mangadakan demonstrasi

Mengadakan demonstrasi secara besar-besaran.

Demonstrasi diadakan di Kota Bharu, Kelantan dan Alor Setar, Kedah.

Mengadakan demonstrasi secara damai semasa Sir Harold MacMichael mendapatkan tandatangan Raja-raja Melayu.

  1. Menghidupkan semula persatuan Melayu

Persatuan-persatuan Melayu dihidupkan semula untuk menentang Malayan Union.

Persatuan-persatuan Melayu menghantar telegram dan surat bantahan ke Pejabat Jajahan di London.

Persatuan-persatuan Melayu bersatu menyatakan bantahan mereka terhadap Malayan Union.

  1. Peranan Dato’ Onn Ja’afar

Dato’ Onn Ja’afar menyerukan orang Melayu berkongres.

Kongres menubuhkan United Malays Organisation (U.M.O) untuk menentang Malayan Union.

  1. Mengadakan Kongres Melayu Pertama

Diadakan pada 1 hingga 4 Mac di Kelab Sultan Sulaiman, Kampung baru, Kuala Lumpur.

Dihadiri oleh 41 buah persatuan dari seluruh Tanah Melayu.

  1. Penubuhan UMNO

Kongres Melayu pertama menubuhkan United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) untuk menentang Malayan Union.

  1. Mengadakan Kongres Melayu Kedua

Diadakan dari 30 hingga 31 Mac 1946.

Bertujuan untuk membantah pengisytiharan Malayan Union pada 1 April 1946.

  1. Mengadakan rapat umum

Diadakan di setiap Bandar besar untuk menunjukkan kepada ahli-ahli Parlimen British bantahan orang Melayu terhadap Malayan Union.

  1. Berkumpul

Raja-raja Melayu berkumpul di Kuala Kangsar untuk menyuarakan bantahan mereka terhadap Malayan Union.

Persekutuan Tanah Melayu

Faktor-faktor Pembentukan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu

  1. Ketegasan orang Melayu membantah Malayan Union di bawah pimpinan Dato’ Onn Ja’afar.

  2. Perpaduan orang Melayu daripada semua golongan masyarakat:

  1. Berjaya mengatasi golongan lain yang menyokong Malayan Union.

  2. Berjaya mendesak British untuk menghidupkan semula dasar perlindungan terhadap orang Melayu.

  1. Sokongan bekas pegawai-pegawai British:

  1. Terdiri daripada bekas pegawai kanan British yang pernah berkhidmat di Tanah Melayu sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua.

  2. Pegawai-pegawai ini menolak dasar menakluk Tanah Melayu.

  3. Antara pegawai-pegawai ini termasuklah Sir Frank Sweettenham, Sir R.O. Winstedt, Sir George Maxwell dan Sir Cecil Clementi.

  1. Sokongan pegawai-pegawai tinggi British seperti Sir Malcolm MacDonald. Sir Edward Gent, dan L.D. Gammans.

  2. Pendekatan sederhana orang Melayu mendorong British menerima kehendak mereka:

  1. Orang Melayu hanya menulis dalam akhbar.

  2. Berdemontrasi secara damai.

  3. Berkongres.

  4. Merujuk Raja-raja Melayu untuk menentang Malayan Union.

  5. Penentangan orang Melayu tidak menggunakan senjata seperti Parti Komunis Malaya.

  1. UMNO tidak menuntut kemerdekaan:

  1. UMNO dan raja-raja Melayu hanya menuntut rundingan untuk menolak Malayan Union.

  2. UMNO dan Raja-raja Melayu tidak menuntut kemerdekaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  1. British bimbang orang Melayu akan dipengaruhi oleh gerakan politik Indonesia jika gagasan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu tidak dilaksanakan.

  2. Gesaan Piagam Atlantik 1945:

  1. Dikeluarkan oleh Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu (PBB) selepas Perang Dunia Kedua.

  2. Piagam ini tidak menggalakkan penjajahan baru.

  3. Piagam ini meminta Negara-negara penjajah member latihan berkerajaan sendiri kepada penduduk tempatan.

  1. Pembentukan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu selari dengan hasrat PBB.

Langkah-langkah Pembentukan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu

  1. British menubuhkan Jawatankuasa Eksekutif:

  1. Terdiri daripada 12 orang ahli.

  2. Diwakili oleh pegawai kanan British, pemimpin UMNO, dan wakil Raja-raja Melayu.

  1. Mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Eksekutif:

  1. Diadakan di King’s House, Kuala Lumpur.

  2. Orang Melayu mengemukakan lima tuntutan.

  1. Menolak semua prinsip Malayan Union.

  2. Menginginkan sesebuah persekutuan.

  3. Menolak syarat kerakyatan terbuka Malayan Union.

  4. Memilih British memulihkan semula dasar perlindungan.

  5. Menuntut Raja-raja Melayu diakui semula sebagai ketua Negeri-negeri Melayu.

  1. Penentangan terhadap perundingan pembentukan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1948:

  1. Ditentang oleh orang dagang dan golongan radikal Melayu.

  2. Pimpinan Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmy.

  3. Alasan-alasan penentangan:

  1. Jawatankuasa Eksekutif tidak mewakili semua pihak.

  2. Tidak diwakili orang dagang.

  3. Menuntut konsep kerajaan republik.

  4. Menuntut kemerdekaan penuh.

  1. Penubuhan Majlis Tindakan Bersama Seluruh Malaya (AMCJA) dan Pusat Tenaga Rakyat (PUTERA):

  1. Bertujuan untuk menentang British dan UMNO.

  2. Mengadakan ceramah politik, demontrasi, dan mogok.

  3. Mengemukakan Perlembagaan Rakyat untuk pertimbangan British tetapi tidak diterima oleh British.

  1. British menubuhkan Jawatankuasa Perunding bagi mendapat pandangan golongan Melayu radikal dan orang dagang.

  2. Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1948:

  1. Ditandatanganipada 21 Januari 1948 antara Raja-raja Melayu dengan British.

  2. Diadakan pada 21 Januari 1948

  3. Bertempat di King’s House, Kuala Lumpur

  1. Persekutuan Tanah Melayu ditubuhkan secara rasmi pada 1 Februari 1948.

Ciri-ciri Utama Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1948

  1. Merupakan sebuah persekutuan.

  2. Mengabungkan sebelas buah Negeri-negeri Melayu.

  3. Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British mengetuai pentadbiran Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  4. Konsep Raja Berperlembagaan diperkenalkan.

  5. Senarai Persekutuan dan senarai Negeri dibentuk.

  6. Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British bertanggungjawab menjaga kedudukan istimewa orang Melayu.

Pergerakan Politik di Sarawak dan Sabah

  1. Pada 8 Februari 1946, Charles Vyner Brooke mengisytiharkan penyerahan Sarawak kepada kerajaan British.

  2. Pada 1 Julai 1946, Sarawak diisytiharkan sebagai Tanah Jajahan Mahkota British.

  3. Sejak itu, berakhirlah pemerintahan keluarga Brooke di Sarawak.

  4. Sebab-sebab Vyner Brooke menyerahkan Sarawak kepada kerajaan British:

  1. Beliau telah tua dan uzur.

  2. Penggantinya didapati tidak layak mentadbir Sarawak dengan cekap.

  3. Desakan daripada kerajaan British.

  4. Pertikaian keluarga.

  5. Menghadapi masalah kewangan untuk membangunkan semula Sarawak selepas Perang Dunia Kedua.

  1. Penyerahan Sarawak kepada kerajaan British mendapat penentangan masyarakat tempatan.

  2. Penentangan penyerahan tersebut dikenal sebagai Gerakan Antipenyerahan.

  3. Sebab-sebab penduduk tempatan menentang penyerahan Sarawak:

  1. Bertentangan dengan Perlembagaan 1941

  2. Keputusan penyerahan dibuat tanpa berunding dengan ketua-ketua peribumi dan pemimpin tempatan.

  3. Sarawak dijadikan Tanah Jajahan Mahkota British.

  4. Melambatkan kemerdekaan Sarawak.

  5. Penyerahan hanya dipersetujui oleh anggota bukan bumiputera dan pegawai-pegawai British dalam mesyuarat Majlis Negeri.

  1. Persatuan-persatuan tempatan yang terlibat dalam Gerakan Antipenyerahan:

  1. Persatuan Melayu Sarawak

  2. Persatuan Dayak Sarawak

  3. Persatuan Kebangsaan Melayu Sarawak

  4. Barisan Pemuda Sarawak

  5. Barisan Pemuda Melayu Sibu

  1. Tindakan-tindakan persatuan dalam Gerakan Antipenyerahan:

  1. Berdemontrasi

  2. Menghantar surat bantahan

  1. Pegawai-pegawai kerajaan meletakkan jawatan sebagai bantahan terhadap Surat Pekeliling Bil.9

  2. Pelajar Maktab Perguruan Melayu meninggalkan pengajian.

  3. Pakatan sulit antara kaum pelajar dengan orang Muda Sarawak telah menghasilkan penubuhan kumpulan Rukun Tiga Belas.

  4. Rukun Tiga Belas:

  1. Kumpulan yang menentang penyerahan Sarawak kepada kerajaan British.

  2. Dianggotai oleh golongan muda Pergerakan Pemuda Melayu Sibu.

  1. Kemuncak penentangan ialah Rosli Dhobi (anggota Rukun Tiga Belas) menikam Sir Duncan Stewart, Gabenor Sarawak di Sibu pada 3 Disember, 1949

  2. Gerakan Antipenyerahan tidak Berjaya dalam perjuangan kerana:

  1. Pemimpin-pemimpin Sarawak tidak bersatu padu.

  2. Penentangan hanya melibatkan orang Melayu dan orang Dayak.

  3. Tekanan berterusan kerajaan British.

  4. Pihak British melaga-lagakan orang Melayu dengan orang Dayak.

  1. Sarawak kekal sebagai tanah jajahan British sehingga tahun 1963.

Penyerahan Sabah kepada Kerajaan British

  1. Syarikat Borneo Utara British (SBUB) menyerahkan Sabah kepada kerajaan British.

  2. Secara rasminya, Sabah menjadi tanah jajahan British pada 15 Julai 1946.

  3. Penyerahan Sabah kepada British tidak mendapat tentangan yang jelas dan terbuka daripada penduduk tempatan.

  4. Keadaan ini berlaku kerana:

  1. Kesedaran politik di Sabah amat perlahan, berpecah belah, dan tidak berkesan.

  2. Persatuan-persatuan di Sabah merupakan persatuan sosioekonomi.

  3. Persatuan-persatuan ini bersifat sederhana.

  4. Persatuan seperti Persatuan Kebangsaan Melayu Labuan, Persatuan Melayu Jesselton, Barisan Pemuda Labuan, dan Jesselton telah terkubur pada tahun 1951.


Sistem Ahli

  1. Latar belakang pembentukan Sistem Ahli:

  1. Idea cetusan Dato’ Onn Ja’afar dalam perbincangannya dengan Sir Henry Gurney.

  2. Cadangan perlaksanaan mengikut model Kenya dan Rhodesia Utara.

  3. Idea pembentukan Sistem Ahli diterima oleh Majlis Raja-raja Melayu pada bulan Julai 1950.

  4. Perundingan antara British dengan wakil penduduk Tanah Melayu di King’s House, Kuala Lumpur membawa kepada pembentukan Sistem Ahli.

  5. Antara tokoh-tokoh tempatan yang terlibat dalam peristiwa tersebut ialah:

  1. Dato’ Onn Ja’afar

  2. Dato’ Hamzah Abdullah

  3. Raja Uda

  4. Dato’ Nik Ahmed Kamil

  5. Dato’ E.E.C. Thuraisingam

  6. Encik Yong Shook Lin

  7. Dr. Lee Tiang Keng

  1. Maksud Sistem Ahli:

  1. Merupakan sistem yang melatih penduduk tempatan dan kaum lain menerajui pentadbiran Tanah Melayu.

  2. Dilaksanakan di Tanah Melayu dari Januari 1951 hingga Jun 1955.

  1. Sebab-sebab British memperkenalkan Sistem Ahli:

  1. Selaras dengan dasar dekolonisasi(satu proses membebaskan negeri yang dijajah)

  2. Mengurangkan tekanan daripada Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM).

  3. Mengelakkan rakyat tempatan terpengaruh dengan PKM.

  1. Ciri-ciri Sistem Ahli:

  1. Satu sistem Kabinet Bayangan (satu sistem pentadbiran yang berbentuk sebuah kabinet yang dibuat tanpa pilihan raya) yang terdiri daripada beberapa orang pegawai tadbir dan tokoh masyarakat tempatan.

  2. Anggota dikenal sebagai Ahli.

  3. Perlantikan Ahli oleh Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British.

  4. Perlantikan mendapat perkenaan Majlis Raja-raja Melayu.

  5. Ahlinya terdiri daripada Sembilan orang anggota.

  6. Ahli-ahlinya diletakkan di bawah kuasa Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British.

  1. Peranan dan Tugas Ahli:

  1. Mengetuai satu portfolio yang terdiri daripada beberapa jabatan kerajaan.

  2. Menguruskan pentadbiran harian jabatan.

  3. Mencadang undang-undang jabatan untuk dibentangkan dalam Majlis Perundangan Persekutuan.

  4. Membincang dan mendapatkan persetujuan daripada pegawai kanan British.

  5. Menerima arahan dan persetujuan Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British.

  6. Menerima arahan dan persetujuan Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British.

  1. Kepentingan Sistem Ahli kepada penduduk Tanah Melayu:

  1. Tapak asas ke arah berkerajaan sendiri.

  2. Memulakan proses perpaduan kaum.

  3. Memberikan peluang kepada tokoh pelbagai kaum memperoleh pengalaman dalam pentadbiran kerajaan.

  4. Merupakan proses kea rah kemerdekaan.

  5. Gabungan kaum-kaum dalam pentadbiran Negara.

  6. Mengurangkan tekanan daripada Parti Komunis Malaya.

Pakatan Murni

Pakatan Murni Praperikatan

  1. Pakatan murni diertikan sebagai usaha semua kaum di Tanah Melayu menghasilkan satu kerjasama atau tolak ansur politik melalui rundingan.

  2. Usaha-usaha Dato’ Onn Ja’afar untuk melaksanakan pakatan murni antara kaum:

  1. Mendorong penubuhan Jawatankuasa Hubungan Antara Kaum atau Communities Liaison Committee (CLC):

  1. Anggotanya terdiri daripada pemimpin Melayu, Cina, India, Sri Lanka, Serani, dan Eropah.

  2. Penubuhan CLC merupakan titik permulaan kerjasama kaum di Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  1. Penubuhan Lembaga Pembangunan Industri Desa (RIDA) Oktober 1950:

  1. Ditubuhkan hasil perundingan UMNO-CLC

  2. Dato’ Onn Ja’afar sebagai pengerusi pertama.

  3. Bertujuan untuk memajukan ekonomi dan pendidikan masyarakat luar Bandar terutamanya kaum Melayu.

  1. Kerakyatan Negeri 1951:

  1. UMNO-CLC bersetuju Kerakyatan Negeri 1951 diberikan kepada imigran yang lahir di Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  2. Pemberian kerakyatan itu tertakluk kepada syarat ibu atau bapanya telah menjadi rakyat Tanah Melayu.

  1. UMNO-CLC bersetuju pilihan raya diadakan di peringkat perbandaran negeri, dan Majlis Perundingan Persekutuan (MPP).

  2. Dato’ Onn Ja’afar mencadangkan pembukaan keahlian UMNO kepada bukan Melayu.

  3. Dato’ Onn Ja’afar menubuhkan Parti Kemerdekaan Malaya (IMP):

  1. Ahli IMP terbuka kepada semua kaum bagi mewujudkan kerjasama kaum untuk mencapai kemerdekaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  2. Dasar IMP menggunakan konsep kerjasama kaum dalam sebuah parti.

  1. Dato’ Onn Ja’afar menyokong penubuhan Persidangan Kebangsaan 1953:

  1. Bertujuan mencapai kerjasama kaum melalui politik.

  2. Mengurangkan perasaan perkauman dalam kalangan penduduk Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  1. Usaha Tunku Abdul Rahman dalam melaksanakan pakatan murni sebelum pebentukan Parti Perikatan:

  1. Menganjurkan Konvensyen Kebangsaan bersama MCA.

  2. Disertai oleh pelbagai parti dan persatuan politik yang lain.

  3. Konvensyen Kebangsaan ini mengasaskan pembentukan Parti Perikatan yang terdiri daripada UMNO-MCA-MIC

  1. Kepentingan pakatan murni kepada penduduk Tanah Melayu:

  1. Mendapat sokongan pelbagai kaum pada peringkat akar umbi.

  2. Membentuk permuafakat politik Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  3. Menggalakkan kerjasama dan tolak ansur politik melalui rundingan.

  4. Menyatupadukan penduduk pelbagai kaum.

  5. Mewujudkan kerjasama kaum dalam usaha untuk menangani tuntutan kemerdekaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

Perikatan Serta Pilihan Raya Bandaran, Negeri dan Majlis Perundangan Persekutuan 1955

  1. Pilihan Raya Majlis Bandaran:

  1. UMNO Kuala Lumpur dengan MCA Selangor membentuk kerjasama.

  2. Dalam menghadapi pilihan raya Majlis Perbandaran Kuala Lumpur 1952

  3. Kerjasama UMNO-MCA ini diusahakan oleh Dato’ Abdul Razak Yahya dan Ong Yoke Lin

  4. Perikatan UMNO-MCA memenangi 9 daripada 12 kerusi dalam pilihan raya Majlis Perbandaran Kuala Lumpur.

  5. Perikatan UMNO-MCA seterusnya memenangi 26 daripada 37 kerusi dalam pilihan raya Majlis Perbandaran di beberapa Bandar utama.

  1. Pilihan raya Negeri 1954:

  1. Perikatan UMNO-MCA memenangi 226 daripada 268 kerusi yang dipertandingkan.

  2. Kemenangan ini membuktikan permuafakatan kaum dalam pelbagai parti.

  3. Membuktikan kerjasama antara kaum melalui parti politik dapat diterima oleh penduduk Tanah Melayu.

  4. Kerjasama UMNO-MCA mengasaskan penubuhan Parti Perikatan.

  1. Pilihan Raya Majlis Perundingan Persekutuan 1955:

  1. Parti Perikatan ditubuhakan secara rasmi pada tahun 1954.

  2. MIC menyertai Parti Perikatan.

  3. Parti Perikatan mewakili tiga kaum terbesar penduduk Tanah Melayu iaitu Melayu, Cina dan India.

  4. Parti Perikatan menyertai Pilihan Raya Majlis Perundangan Persekutuan 1955.

  5. Manifesto Parti Perikatan:

  1. Mencapai kemerdekaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dalam tempoh empat tahun.

  2. Mewajibkan pendidikan rendah.

  3. Melindungi hak Raja-raja Melayu sebagai Raja Berperlembagaan.

  4. Menjadikan perkhidmatan awam bercorak tempatan.

  5. Menjaga hak asasi manusia.

  6. Menamatkan darurat secepat mungkin.

  1. Parti Perikatan memenangi Pilihan Raya Majlis Perundangan dengan memenangi 51 daripada 52 kerusi yang dipertandingkan.

Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957

Suruhanjaya Reid

  1. Ahli Suruhanjaya Reid:

  1. Lord Reid (pengerusi)

  2. Sir Ivor Jennings

  3. Sir William Mckell

  4. Tuan B. Malik

  5. Tuan Abdul Hamid

  1. Tujuan penubuhan Suruhanjaya Reid ialah membincangkan dan menyusun perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu yang merdeka.

  2. Tugas Suruhanjaya Reid adalah untuk merangka sebuah perlembagaan bagi Persekutuan Tanah Melayu yang akan merdeka.

  3. Isu-isu yang menjadi panduan Suruhanjaya Reid dalam merangka Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu:

  1. Pembentukan sebuah kerajaan persekutuan yang kuat.

  2. Pemberian kuasa autonomi kepada negeri dalam bidang tertentu.

  3. Kedudukan Raja-raja Melayu.

  4. Hak istimewa orang Melayu.

  5. Perwujudan satu bangsa Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  1. Suruhanjaya Reid menerima sebanyak 131 memorandum daripada Raja-raja Melayu, parti Perikatan, orang perseorangan, dan parti politik.

  2. Cadangan Suruhanjaya Reid diterima oleh Parlimen British pada bulan Mei 1957.

  3. Majlis Mesyuarat Persekutuan Tanah Melayu mengesahkannya pada Ogos 1957.

  4. Lahirnya Perlembagaan Kemerdekaan 1957.

Isu-isu Penting Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957

  1. Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957 ditandatangani oleh Raja-raja Melayu dan British pada 15 Ogos 1957.

  2. Perjanjian ini menghasilkan Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957.

  3. Antara isu-isu penting dalam Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957:

  1. Pembentukan sebuah kerajaan persekutuan dengan nama Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  2. Yang Di-pertuan Agong sebagai ketua Negara.

  3. Pembentukan Raja Berperlembagaan pada peringkat Negara dan peringkat negeri.

  4. Kedudukan istimewa orang Melayu dikekalkan.

  5. Agama Islam sebagai agama rasmi Persekutuan.

  6. Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan.

  7. Pentadbiran Negara bersifat demokrasi berparlimen.

  8. Pembentukan sebuah Parlimen yang mempunyai Dewan Rakyat dan Dewan Negara.

  9. Mewujudkan tiga jenis kerakyatan iaitu secara Kuat Kuasa Undang-undang, Pemohonan, dan Naturalisasi.

  10. Prinsip jus soli diterima.

  11. Pemisahan antara kuasa persekutuan dan negeri melalui Senarai Persekutuan dan Senarai Negeri.

  12. Perdana Menteri sebagai ketua pentadbiran Negara.

  13. Menteri Besar/Ketua Menteri menjadi pelaksana pentadbiran negeri.

  14. Menteri Besar/Ketua Menteri dibantu oleh Dewan Undangan Negeri dan EXCO.

Kepentingan Perjanjian Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957

  1. Membentuk sebuah kerajaan demokrasi.

  2. Mewujudkan konsep Raja Berperlembagaan.

  3. Mewujudkan perpaduan dan keharmonian kaum.

  4. Memberikan hak mutlak kepada penduduk Persekutuan Tanah Melayu yang berdaulat dan merdeka.

  5. Rakyat memerintah Negara merdeka mengikut acuan sendiri.

  6. Pemulangan semula kuasa politik Negara kepada pemerintah tempatan.

  7. Kemerdekaan tercapai tanpa pertumpahan darah.

  8. Perbezaan warna kulit, agama, bahasa, dan bangsa diketepikan.

  9. Melahirkan identity masyarakat yang merdeka.

  10. Pemulangan kuasa kepada pemerintah tempatan dilakukan dengan penuh tertib dan bersopan.

  11. Membuktikan pakatan murni antara kaum terbina di Persekutuan Tanah Melayu yang merdeka.


Cadangan Ke arahPembentukan Malaysia

  1. Pada 27 Mei 1961, Tuanku Abdul Rahman mencadangkan pembentukan Gagasan Malaysia dalam majlis makan tengah hari anjuran Persatuan Wartawan Luar Negeri di Hotel Adelphi, Singapura.

  2. Beliau menyuarakan harapannya supaya Negara Malaysia dapat dibentuk bagi menjamin satu kedudukan politik yang lebih kukuh dan disegani rantau ini.

  3. Pembentukan Malaysia dapat mewujudkan kerjasama dalam bidang ekonomi dan social.

Faktor-faktor Pembentukan Malaysia

Faktor Politik

  1. Keselamatan

  1. Lee Kuan Yew berminat untuk bergabung dengan Tanah Melayu kerana perkembangan pengaruh Barisan Sosialis yang memenangi pilihan raya Hong Lim di Singapura pada bulan April 1961

  2. Kebangkitan pengaruh Barisan Sosialis akan melemahkan Parti Tindakan Rakyat pimpinan Lee Kuan Yew.

  3. Perkembangan di SIngapura akan menggugat rancangan kerajaan British dalam memberikan kemerdekaan kepada SIngapura.

  4. Lee Kuan Yew menggunakan alasan ancaman komunis untuk mendesak British menggabungkan Singapura dengan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.

  5. Persekutuan Tanah Melayu berpengalaman dalam membanteras pengaruh Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM).

  6. Ancaman komunis turut berlaku di Sarawak dan Clandestine Communist Organization (CCO) bermatlamat menjadi Sarawak sebagai Negara komunis.

  7. Ancaman komunis merupakan antara faktor terpenting yang mendorong pembentukan Malaysia kerana penyertaan Singapura, Sarawak, dan Sabah diharapkan dapat menjadi benteng yang kukuh bagi mennghadapi ancaman komunis.

  1. Kemerdekaan

  1. Penubuhan Malaysia akan memperceptkan kemerdekaan Sarawak, Sabah, Singapura, dan Brunei masih belum mampu berkerajaan sendiri.

  2. Penyertaan Negara-negara ini dalam Malaysia dapa menjamin kemerdekaan yang lebih awal kerana mengikut perancangan, Malaysia akan ditubuhkan dalam tempoh dua tahun.

  1. Dekolonisasi

  1. Penubuhan Malaysia merupakan satu usaha dekolonisasi British terhadap negeri-negeri kecil yang belum membangun.

  2. Dalam Perhimpunan Agong Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu (PBB) pada tahun 1960, timbul usul agar tanah-tanah jajahan diberikan kemerdekaan.

  3. Kejayaan pembentukan Malaysia diharapkan dapat memberikan kestabilan politik kepada rantau Asia Tenggara.

  4. British berharap pembentukan Malaysia dapat menghalang penyebaran pengaruh komunis di Singapura dan wilayah-wilayah Borneo.

  5. British perlu mengambil langkah-langkah kea rah memastikan kepentingan mereka terus terkawal terutamanya di pangkalannya, Singapura.

Faktor Ekonomi

  1. Penubuhan Malaysia akan mewujudkan satu pasaran yang lebih luas bagi menggalakkan pelaburan dan perkembangan industri pertanian.

  2. Kerjasama serantau dalam bidang ekonomi dapat memanfaatkan keistimewaan dan sumber-sumber yang ada di negeri-negeri ini.

Faktor Sosial

  1. Pembentukan Malaysia dapat mengimbangkan jumlah dan kadar pertumbuhan kaum dalam kalangan negeri anggota dengan memasukkan Sarawak, Sabah, dan Brunei dalam gabungan itu.

Reaksi Terhadap Pembentukan Malaysia

  1. Brunei:

  1. Sultan Brunei, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin, menyokong gagasan Malaysia pada peringkat awalnya.

  2. Parti Rakyat Brunei (PRB) pimpinan A.M. Azahari menentang gagasan Malaysia kerana ingin menubuhkan Persekutuan Borneo iaitu kerajaan Kalimantan Utara yang terdiri daripada Sarawak, Sabah dan Brunei.

  3. Anggota PRB mengangap gagasan Malaysia sebagai satu bentuk neokolonialisme.

  4. A.M. Azahari telah melancarkan pemberontakan di bawah pasukan Tentera Nasional Kalimantan Utara (TNKU) yang ditubuhkan di beberapa buah Bandar di Sarawak, Sabah, dan Brunei.

  5. Pemberontakan Brunei yang berlaku pada 7 Disember 1962 dapat dipatahkan oleh tentera British A.M. Azahari yang berada di Manila tidak dapat ditangkap.

  1. Indonesia:

  1. Penentangan Indonesia hanya berlaku pada akhir tahun 1962 kerana berpendapat bahawa pembentukan Malaysia merupakan satu bentuk neokolonialisme yang akan mengancam Indonesia.

  2. Pandangan Parti Komunis Indonesia (PKI) thelah mempengaruhi Presiden Soekarno untuk mengisytiharkan Dasar Konfrontasi.

  3. Pada 20 januari 1963, Indonesia melancarkan Dasar Konfrontasi terhadap Malaysia dengan konsep Gayang Malaysia untuk memushkan pembentukan Malaysia.

  4. Antara tindakan Indonesia ialah menghantar pengintip untuk memusnahkan gagasan Malaysia dari dalam secara sulit.

  5. Pada peringkat permulaan Indonesia melakukan serangan terhadap kapal-kapal nelayan Tanah Melayu dan melakukan pencerobohan udara.

  6. Kerajaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu tidak mengambil sebarang tindakan pada peringkat ini tetapi apabila tentera Indonesia mula melancarkan serangan terhadap Malaysia melalui Johor, Sarawak, dan Sabah, Malaysia bertindak balas dengan bantuan tentera Komanwel termasuk Britain, Australia, New Zealand, dan Kanada.

  7. Tunku Abdul Rahman menghantar bantahan rasmi kepada Setiausaha Agung Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu.

  8. Ancaman Indonesia untuk menekan Tanah Melayu dari segi ekonomi tidak berlaku tetapi tetapi sebaliknya tindakan ini telah menjejaskan Indonesia sendiri.

  9. Perwakilan Malaysia yang diketuai oleh Tuanku Abdul Razak mengadakan lawatan ke beberapa buah Negara Afrika untuk menjelaskan masalah hubungan diplomatic antara Indonesia dengan Malaysia.

  10. Hubungan tegang antara Indonesia-Malaysia berterusan sehingga bulan September 1965 apabila berlaku pemberontakan bersenjata di Indonesia.

  11. Jeneral Soeharto telah menggulingkan Presiden Soekarno.

  12. Presiden Soeharto telah menghantar Menteri Luar Indonesia, Adam Malik bagi memelihara hubungan diplomatic Indonesia-Malaysia.

  13. Perundingan telah diadakan di Bangkok pada tahun 1966 dan Malaysia diwakili oleh Tun Abdul Razak Hussein.

  14. Menjelang bulan Ogos 1966, konfrontasi Indonesia terhadap Malaysia ditamatkan.

  1. Filipina:

  1. Pada bulan Jun 1962, kerajaan Filipina di bawah pimpinan Presiden Macapagal membuat pengumuman rasmi untuk menuntut hak terhadap Sabah.

  2. Kerajaan Filipina mendakwa bahawa Sabah masih merupakan sebahagian daripada milik Kesultanan Sulu.

  3. Walau bagaimanapun, menjelang bulan Jun 1966, Filipina mengiktiraf penubuhan Malaysia untuk membaiki hubungan antara Malaysia-Filipina melalui MAPHILINDO (Malaysia, Filipina, dan Indonesia).

Langkah-langkah Pembentukan Malaysia

  1. Lawatan:

  1. Selepas Tunku Adbul Rahman berucap di Singapura pada akhir bulan Mei 1961, beliau mengadakan lawatan ke Sarawak, Sabah dan Brunei.

  2. Lawatan tersebut bertujuan untuk menerangkan konsep, tujuan, dan matlamat penubuhan Malaysia.

  1. Perundingan:

  1. Rundingan juga diadakan antara pegawai-pegawai kanan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dengan pegawai-pegawai British dari Sarawak, Sabah, dan Singapura.

  1. Penubuhan Jawatankuasa Perunding Perpaduan Kaum (JPPK):

  1. JPPK ditubuhkan di Singapura pada bulan Julai 1961.

  2. Jawatankuasa ini dipengerusi oleh Donald Stephens. Ahli jawatankuasa terdiri daripada:

  1. Tunku Abdul Rahman, Ong Yoke Lin, Khir Johari (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu)

  2. Lee Kuan Yew (Singapura)

  3. Tun Datu Mustapha datu Harun (Sabah)

  1. Jawatankuasa ini berperanan:

  1. Menerangkan kepada orang ramai tentang gagasan Malaysia.

  2. Mengumpul pandangan penduduk.

  3. Menggalakkan kegiatan kea rah pembentukan Malaysia.

  1. Penubuhan Suruhanjaya Cobbold:

  1. Disertai oleh tiga orang pegawai British iaitu Lord Cobbold (Pengerusi Suruhanjaya Cobbold), Sir Anthony Abell, dan Sir david Watherston.

  2. Rakyat tempatan yang menyertai suruhanjaya ini ialah Dato’ Wong Pow Nee dan Tan Sri Ghazali Shafie.

  3. Suruhanjaya ini bertujuan:

  1. Meninjau pendapat rakyat Sarawak dan Sabah tentang gagasan Malaysia.

  2. Membuat penilaian dan mengemukakan cadangan kepada pihak British.

  1. Menurut laporan Suruhanjaya Cobbold:

  1. Satu pertiga penduduk Sarawak dan Sabah menyokong gagasan Malaysia tanpa syarat.

  2. Satu pertiga penduduk Sarawak dan Sabah menyokonh gagasan Malaysia dengan syarat kepentingan mereka harus dilindungi.

  3. Satu pertiga lagi menginginkan kemerdekaan sebelum menyertai Malaysia.

  1. Suruhanjaya Cobbold telah mengemukakan beberapa cadangan:

  1. Perlembagaan Malaysia yang baru harus berasaskan Perlembagaan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1957.

  2. Sabah dan Sarawak diberikan kuasa untuk menentukan dasar imigresennya.

  3. Bahasa Melayu dijadikan bahasa kebangsaan.

  4. Jaminan terhadap hak dan kedudukan Bumiputera Sarawak dan Sabah.

  5. Pemberian nama Malaysia kepada Negara baru yang dibentuk.

  6. Tarikh penubuhan Malaysia ditentukan.

  7. Cadangan Suruhanjaya Cobbold telah diperincikan oleh Jawatankuasa Antara Kerajaan.

  1. Penubuhan Jawatankuasa Antara Kerajaan (JAK):

  1. JAK ditubuhkan pada bulan Ogos 1962.

  2. Dipengerusi oleh Lord Landsdowne dan dibantu oleh Timbalan Perdana Menteri Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, Tun Abdul Razak.

  3. Lord Landsdowne dan Tunku Abdul Razak telah mengunjungi Sarawak dan Sabah untuk menerangkan tentang penubuhan Malaysia.

  4. JAK telah bermesyuarat sebanyak 24 kali untuk:

  1. Mewajarkan kemasukan Sarawak dan Sabah ke dalam Persekutuan Malaysia.

  2. Membincangkan hak dan kepentingan penduduk Sarawak dan Sabah.

  1. Penubuhan MAPHILINDO:

  1. Pada 30 Julai hingga 5 Ogos 1963, siding kemuncak antara Tunku Abdul Rahman, Presiden Soekarno, dan Presiden Macapagal diadakan di Manila.

  2. Hasil daripada rundingan itu, MAPHILINDO telah ditubuhkan.

  3. Ketiga-tiga Negara ini bersetuju untuk mencari jalan penyelesaian dengan bantuan Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu (PBB).

  1. Perwakilan Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu (PBB):

  1. Setiausaha Agung PBB, U Thant telah membentuk United Nations Malaysia Mission (UNMM).

  2. Dalam tinjauan ini, mereka mendapati bahawa majority rakyat Sarawak dan Sabah sememangnya bersetuju untuk menyertai Persekutuan Malaysia.

  3. Tarikh pembentukan Malaysia terpaksa ditunda pada 16 September 1963 kerana laporan daripada PBB tidak dapat disiapkan dan kerana tentangan ini berterusan daripada Indonesia dan Filipina.

  4. Pada saat-saat akhir, Brunei pula menarik diri daripada menyertai gagasan Brunei.

Perjanjian Malaysia 1963

  1. Semua urusan hal ehwal luar adalah menjadi tanggungjawab kerajaan Persekutuan.

  2. Agama Islam merupakan agama Persekutuan kecuali Sabah dan Sarawak.

  3. Agama lain adalah bebas diamalkan.

  4. Bahasa Melayu merupakan bahasa kebangsaan tetapi bahasa Inggeris dan bahasa lain masih boleh digunakan.

  5. Bagi negeri Sarawak dan Sabah, bahasa rasminya ialah bahasa Inggeris sehingga 10 tahun selepas Hari Malaysia (hari pengisytiharan pembentukan Malaysia pada 16 September 1963).

  6. Negeri Sarawak dan Sabah diberikan kuasa mengawal hal ehwal imigresen dan perkhidmatan awam.

  7. Sarawak memperoleh 24 kerusi, Sabah 16 kerusi, dan Singapura 15 kerusi bagi perwakilan parlimen.

  8. Rakyat bumiputera di Sarawak dan Sabah mendapat taraf yang sama dengan orang Melayu di Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.


Ciri-Ciri Demokrasi Berparlimen

  1. Perlembagaan Malaysia:

  1. Diperkenalkan pada 16 September 1963 yang mengandungi 183 perkara.

  2. Perlembagaan ini mengandungi peruntukan seperti:

  1. Senarai Persekutuan, Senarai Negeri, dan Senarai Bersama.

  2. Institusi Yang Di-pertuan Agong, Parlimen, Jemaah Menteri, dan Badan Kehakiman.

  1. Keluhuran perlembagaan:

  1. Merupakan prinsip Rukun Negara yang ketiga.

  2. Bermaksud keagungan dan ketertinggian undang-undang atau perlembagaan itu sendiri.

  1. Bukti keluhuran perlembagaan (Ketertinggian Perlembagaan Malaysia):

  1. Kuasa Parlimen, kedudukan Yang Di-pertuan Agong, kuasa perundangan dan kebebasan asasi diperuntukkan oleh Perlembagaan.

  2. Parlimen memperolehi kuasa daripada perlembagaan.

  3. Yang Di-pertuan Agong tertakluk kepada Perlembagaan Malaysia.

  4. Keluhuran Perlembagaan Malaysia mengatasi Yang Di-pertuan Agong, Parlimen, Jemaah Menteri, dan mahkamah.

  5. Semua jenis undang-undang yang bercanggah dengan Perlembagaan Malaysia adalah tidak sah.

  6. Undang-undang Negeri mestilah selaras dengan Perlembagaan Persekutuan dan Perkara 75 menyatakan bahawa undang-undang negeri yang bertentangan dengan Perlembagaan Persekutuan adalah terbatal dengan sendirinya.

  7. Perlembagaan Malaysia memperuntukkan kuasa kepada mahkamah untuk membatalkan akta yang diluluskan di luar bidang kuasa Parlimen atau bercanggah dengan Perlembagaan Malaysia.

  8. Mahkamah berkuasa menentukan kesahihan setia undang-undang bagi menjamin keluhuran dan ketertinggian Perlembagaan Malaysia.

  1. Kepentingan perlembagaan:

  1. Menentukan rangka dan bentuk kerajaan

  1. Menjamin kestabilan sesebuah Negara dengan menentukan rangka dan bentuk pentadbirannya.

  2. Membantu dalam menjamin kecekapan, kejujuran, ketelusan serta kelicinan pentadbiran dan pemerintahan sesebuah kerajaan.

  3. Setiap pemimpin memerlukan panduan semasa memerintah supaya pemerintahannya menepati kehendak perlembagaan dan aspirasi rakyat.

  1. Menjamin taat setia rakyat

  1. Perkara 24 menyatakan bahawa seseorang yang mempunyai kerakyatan Negara lain akan dilucutkan kewarganegaraannya.

  2. Perkara 25 menyatakan bahawa seseorang boleh dilucutkan kerakyatan jika terbukti tidak setia kepada Negara ini.

  3. Bertujuan supaya rakyat memberikan sepenuh ketaatan kepada tanah air untuk mengekalkan identity Negara dan bangsa Malaysia.

  1. Menjamin hak asasi dan kebebasan rakyat

  1. Setiap warganegara mempunyai hak asasi dan kebebasan seperti berpersatuan, beragama, dan memiliki harta.

  1. Menjaga dan memelihara hak istimewa dan kedudukan

  1. Perkara 153 dalam Perlembagaan Malaysia memperuntukkan bahawa Yang Di-pertuan Agong berperanan menjaga dan memelihara hak istimewa dan kedudukan orang Melayu dan Bumiputera Sarawak dan Sabah.

  2. Hak istimewa ini termasuk pemberian jawatan dalam perkhidmatan awam, biasiswa, kemudahan pendidikan, dan pemberian lessen perniagaan dan perdagangan.

  3. Perlembagaan juga memastikan Perkara 153 dilaksankan dengan berhati-hati supaya perlaksanaannya tidak mengabaikan kaum-kaum yang lain.

  1. Menjamin kerjasama, kesepakatan, dan kepentingan bersama

  1. Menjamin kerjasama, kesepakatan, dan kepentingan bersama antara Kerajaan Persekutuan dengan Kerajaan Negeri.

  2. Menjadi rujukan utama dalam penggubalan undang-undang Persekutuan dan Negeri untuk membolehkan sistem pentadbiran Negara dapat diselaraskan tanpa sebarang perbalahan.

  1. Menjamin hak istimewa orang Melayu dan bumiputera tidak dipersoalkan

  1. Jaminan ini telah ditetapkan dalam Perlembagaan Malaysia sebelum Sabah dan Sarawak menyertai Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

  2. Kerajaan Persekutuan menggunakan senarai kuasanya dalam bidang pendidikan dan kesihatan untuk membantu memesatkan pembangunan di Sabah dan Sarawak membolehkan pembangunan yang pesat berlaku dalam bidang pendidikan, kesihatan serta perkhidmatan pos, telekom dan polis terutamanya di kawasan pendalaman.

  1. Tujuan pindaan:

  1. Melindungi kepentingan rakyat.

  2. Menjaga keselamatan Negara.

  3. Melicinkan urusan pentadbiran Negara.

  4. Menjadikan perlembagaan sebagai undang-undang yang munasabah dan kandungannya dipatuhi oleh rakyat dengan rela hati.

Raja Berperlembagaan

  1. Bidang kuasa yang di-Pertuan Agong:

  1. Sebagai ketua Negara, Yang di-Pertuan Agong mengetuai tiga badan kerajaan iaitu Badan Perundangan (Legislatif), Badan Pemerintah (Eksekutif), dan Badan Kehakiman (Judisiari).

  2. Merupakan satu daripada tiga unsur Parlimen. Baginda mempunyai kuasa memanggil dan membuburkan Parlimen.

  3. Baginda merupakan Ketua Tertinggi Angkatan Bersenjata. Baginda berkuasa mengampunkan dan menanggungkan sesuatu hukuman terhadap kesalahan yang dibicarakan oleh Mahkamah Tentera.

  4. Baginda bertanggungjawab menjaga dan memelihara kedudukan dan hak istimewa orang Melayu. Baginda boleh menitahkan Majlis Raja-raja Melayu mengadakan mesyuarat bagi membincangkan keistimewaan, kedudukan, kehormatan, dan kemuliaan Raja-raja Melayu.

  5. Yang di-Pertuan Agong merupakan Ketua Agama Islam bagi negeri baginda sendiri, Pulau Pinang, Melaka, Wilayah Persekutuan, Sarawak, dan Sabah.

  6. Yang di-Pertuan Agong mempunyai kuasa budi bicara untuk melantik Perdana Menteri. Baginda mempunyai kuasa melantik dan melucutkan jawatan Jemaah Menteri dan Timbalan Menteri setelah mendapat nasihat Perdana Menteri.

  7. Yang di-Pertuan Agong boleh mengisytiharkan undang-undang darurat di bawah “Undang-undang X” jika mendapati keselamatan Negara terancam.

  8. Baginda melantik Pengerusi dan tiga orang ahli Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya, ahli Perkhidmatan Kehakiman, serta Pengerusi dan Timbalan Pengerusi Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Awam. Baginda bertanggungjawab melantik Peguam Negara dan seorang Ketua Audit Negara bagi Persekutuan.

  9. Yang di-Pertuan Agong mempunyai kuasa tertinggi untuk mentauliahkan duta-duta Negara kita.

Pilihan Raya

  1. Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya (SPR):

  1. Pilihan raya dijalankan oleh Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya (SPR).

  2. Keanggotaan SPR dilantik oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong selepas berunding dengan Majlis Raja-raja Melayu.

  3. SPR ditubuhkan untuk menjamin pilihan raya yang adil dan bebas tanpa tekanan parti pemerintah atau pembangkang.

  4. Fungsi utam SPR:

  1. Menentukan sempadan bahagian-bahagian pilihan raya.

  2. Menjalankan pendaftaran pemilih.

  3. Mengendalikan pilihan raya umum atau pilihan raya kecil.

  1. Calon:

  1. Warganegara Malaysia bebas memilih dan menganggotai mana-mana parti politik yang mereka gemari.

  2. Mereka boleh menjadi calon dan bebas untuk bertanding dalam pilihan raya.

  3. Syarat-syarat menjadi calon:

  1. Warganegara Malaysia.

  2. Berumur 21 tahun.

  3. Bermastautin di Malaysia.

  4. Sempurna akal

  5. Bukan orang yang muflis.

  6. Tidak memegang jawatan dalam perkhidmatan awam.

  7. Bertanding atas nama parti atau nama individu (sebagai calon bebas)

  8. Tidak disabitkan dengan sesuatu kesalahan oleh mahkamah.

  1. Seseorang warganegara akan kehilangan kelayakan sebagai ahli Parlimen atau ahli Deawn Undangan Negeri jika dihukum penjara tidak kurang daripada 12 bulan atau didenda tidak kurang daripada RM 2000 dan belum mendapat pengampunan.

  2. Calon daripada pelbagai parti yang bertanding dibenarkan berkempen sebelum proses pengundian pilihan raya umum atau pilihan raya kecil diadakan.

  3. Tempoh berkempen adalah antara tujuh hingga 15 hari sahaja.

  1. Pengundi:

  1. Syarat-syarat menjadi pengundi:

  1. Namanya telah didaftarkan dalam Senarai Daftar Pemilih.

  2. Seorang warganegara

  3. Berumur 21 tahun

  4. Bermastautin atau tidak bermastautin

  5. Tinggal di mana-mana kawasan pilihan raya Dewan Rakyat atau Dewan Undangan Negeri.

  1. Seseorang pengundi hanya boleh mengundi dalam sebuah kawasan pilihan raya sahaja.

  2. Perlembagaan Malaysia membenarkan undi secara pos (dengan syarat telah mendaftar sebagai pengundi) kepada:

  1. Anggota pasukan keselamatan

  2. Pelajar Malaysia ke luar negara.

  3. Pegawai kerajaan yang bertugas di luar Negara.

Negara Persekutuan


Senarai Persekutuan

Senarai Negeri

Senarai Bersama

Hal Ehwal luar negeri (hubungan luar).


Keselamatan dalam negeri.

Pentadbiran dan keadilan.

Kerakyatan Negara.

Pilihan raya Negara.


Perniagaan, perdagangan, dan perusahaan.

Perkapalan, pelayaran, dan pengangkutan.

Jabatan ukur, penyelidikan.

Kerja raya dan tenaga pusat.



Keselamatan buruh dan sosial.

Orang Asli.

Hal-hal lain.

Undang-undang Islam.

Tanah pertanian dan perhutanan.

Kerajaan tempatan.

Perkhidmatan tempatan.

Kerajaan negeri.

Hari cuti negeri.

Undang-undang negeri.

Kebajikan sosial.


Perancangan Bandar dan wilayah.

Penjagaan haiwan.

Kesihatan dan kebersihan awam.

Parit dan tali air.


Hiburan awam.


Lambang-Lambang Negara

  1. Dua ekor harimau yang menyokong perisai bermaksud keberanian.

  2. Bulan sabit berwarna kuning di atas perisai bermaksud agama Islam sebagai agama rasmi Malaysia.

  3. Bintang Berpecah empat belas melambangkan gabungan empat belas buah negeri dalam Persekutuan Malaysia.

  4. Lima Bilah Keris pada perisai melambangkan Negeri-negeri Melayu tidak Bersekutu iaitu Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu dan Johor.

  5. Empat jalur berlainan warna di tengah-tengah perisai merujuk kepada Negeri-negeri Melayu Bersekutu iaitu Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan dan Pahang.

  1. Warna hitam dan putih melambangkan negeri Pahang.

  2. Warna merah dan kuning melambangkan negeri Selangor.

  3. Warna hitam, putih dan kuning melambangkan negeri Perak.

  4. Warna merah, hitam dan kuning melambangkan Negeri Sembilan.

  1. Pokok Pinang di bahagian kiri perisai melambangkan negeri Pulau Pinang.

  2. Pokok Melaka di bahagian kanan perisai melambangkan negeri Melaka.

  3. Jata di sebelah kiri bunga raya melambangkan negeri Sabah.

  4. Jata di seblah kanan bunga raya melambangkan negeri Sarwak.

  5. Bunga raya yang terletak di antara lambang negeri Sarawak dan Sabah melambangkan bunga kebangsaan Malaysia.

  6. Cogan kata “Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu” di bwah perisai bermaksud permuafakat akan mengeratkan lagi perpaduan antara negeri di Malaysia.


Pembangunan Ekonomi

Dasar Pertanian Negara

  1. Dasar Pertanian Negara (DPN) dilancarkan pada 12 Januari 1984.

  2. Bermatlamat:

  1. Meningkatkan pendapatan sector pertanian ke tahap maksimum menerusi pengurusan sumber ekonomi Negara yang cekap dan berkesan.

  2. Memaksimumkan pendapatan pekebun kecil.

  3. Memajukan komoditi utama yang berpotensi untuk dieksport.

  1. Strategi DPN:

  1. Pembukaan tanah baru

  1. Menggalakkan pembukaan tanah-tanah baru di bawah rancangan FELDA, agensi pembangunan wilayah, dan kerajaan negeri.

  1. Memperkenalkan program pembangunan in-situ

  1. Bertujuan meningkatkan produktiviti kawasan pertanian yang sedia ada.

  2. Dilaksanakan melalui projek-projek pembangunan pertanian bersepadu dan program yang lazim dilaksanakan oleh jabatankerajaan seperti KEMUBU, BESUT, JOHOR BARAT, KELANTAN UTARA, dan SELANGOR BARAT.

  3. Program in-situ dilaksanakan dengan menyediakan perkhidmatan sokongan pertanian seperti pemasaran, kredit, subsidi, dan penyelidikan.

  1. Penglibatan swasta

  1. Penglibatan sektor swasta dalam projek penswastaan pertanian di bawah Kementerian Pertanian.

Dasar Pensyarikatan Malaysia

  1. Dasar pensyarikatan Malaysia diperkenalkan pada 25 Februari 1983.

  2. Matlamat dasar ini ialah merangsang penglibatan sektor swasta secara aktif dan berkesan dalam pembangunan Negara.

  3. Melalui dasar ini, Malaysia dianggap sebagai sebuah syarikat yang dimiliki secara bersama oleh kerajaan dan sektor swasta.

  4. Semua kakitangan kerajaan dan swasta merupakan pemilik saham dan pekerja yang dipertanggungjawabkan untuk memajukan syarikat ini (Malaysia).

Dasar Penswastaan

  1. Dasar Penswastaan dilancarkan oleh Perdana Menteri, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad pada bulan Mac, 1983.

  2. Menerusi dasar ini, kerajaan memindahkan perkhidmatan, perusahaan, kepentingan, pelaburan, dan kuasa tertentu kepada sektor swasta.

  3. Matlamat Dasar Penswastaan:

  1. Mengurangkan beban kewangan kerajaan.

  2. Meningkatkan produktiviti dan kualiti perkhidmatan atau barangan kerana sektor swasta dianggap lebih cekap daripada sektor awam.

  3. Mempercepatkan pembangunan ekonomi Negara melalui pelaburan modal oleh sektor swasta.

  1. Unit Perancangan Ekonomi (UPE) bertindak sebagai Jawatankuasa penswastaan yang member garis panduan kepada sesebuah kementerian atau jabatan yang ingin menjalankan penswastaan.

  2. Berdasarkan garis panduan yang disediakan, penswastaan boleh dilaksanakan sama ada secara sepenuhnya atau secara sebahagian.

  3. Menerusi dasar penswastaan, kerajaan dapat mengurangkan beban kewangan dan mengalihkan tumpuan terhadap pembangunan sektor lain.

  4. Antara syarikat yang telah diswastakan ialah:

  1. Syarikat Airod Sdn. Bhd.

  2. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB)

  3. Telekom Malaysia Berhad

Dasar kependudukan

  1. Dasar Kependudukan dikemukakan oleh Perdana Menteri pada 29 Mac 1984.

  2. Matlamat dasar ini ialah mencapai sasaran 70 juta penduduk menjelang tahun 2100.

  3. Pertumbuhan penduduk dalam jangka masa panjang akan membawa faedah kepada:

  1. Peningkatan produktiviti.

  2. Peningkatan dalam bekalan tenaga buruh.

  3. Perluasan pasaran.

  4. Peningkatan dalam kekuatan politik dan keselamatan Negara.

  1. Dasar kependudukan menitikberatkan keselarasan antara kadar pertumbuhan penduduk dengan kadar pembangunan sosioekonomi Negara khususnya berkaitan dengan kemudahan pendidikan, perumahan, kesihatan, dan peluang pekerjaan.

  2. Segala program pembangunan Negara didasarkan pada unjuran jumlah penduduk untuk memastikan pertambahan penduduk tidak mendatangkan masalah kepada Negara.

Pembangunan dan Perpaduan Negara

Rukun Negara

  1. Rukun Negara dibentuk akibat daripada Peristiwa 13 Mei 1969.

  2. Matlamat Rukun Negara ialah:

  1. Mengukuhkan perpaduan

  2. Memelihara corak kehidupan demokratik.

  3. Mencipta sebuah masyarakat yang adil.

  4. Menjamin sikap liberal terhadap tradisi kebudayaan yang pelbagai.

  5. Membina masyarakat progresif yang akan menggunakan sains dan teknologi.

  1. Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan

  1. Agama merupakan pegangan paling utama rakyat Malaysia.

  2. Rakyat yang beragama mudah diurus menjadi warganegara yang baik dan bertanggungjawab.

  3. Perlembagaan Malaysia 1963 menetapkan bahawa agama Islam ialah agama rasmi tetapi agama lain bebas diamalkan.

  1. Kesetiaan kepada Raja dan Negara

  1. Semua rakyat Malaysia dituntut memberikan kesetiaan kepada raja dan Negara.

  2. Yang di-Pertuan Agong merupakan Ketua Negara dan Raja Melayu merupakan ketua negeri.

  3. Raja sebagai symbol penyatuan rakyat dan pelindungan hak istimewa peribumi.

  4. Penderhaka kepada raja juga bermakna menderhaka terhadap Negara.

  1. Keluhuran Perlembagaan

  1. Memberi penekanan kepada keluhuran perlembagaan.

  2. Perlembagaan merupakan undang-undang utama bagi sesebuah Negara dan dianggap luhur, unggul dan suci.

  3. Keluhuran perlembagaan menuntut semua rakyat menerima, mematuhi, dan menyanjungi dan mempertahannya.

  1. Kedaulatan Undang-undang

  1. Menekankan pada kedaulatan undang-undang.

  2. Prinsip ini menuntut rakyat Malaysia supaya menghormati undang-undang dengan tidak melakukan kesalahan di sisi undang-undang.

  3. Semua rakyat akan hidup dengan aman apabila kedaulatan undang-undang dipelihara.

  4. Kita bertanggungjawab memastikan undang-undang Negara sentiasa didaulatkan dan tidak dicabar oleh mana-mana pihak.

  1. Kesopanan dan kesusilaan

  1. Prinsip ini menuntut semua rakyat Malaysia supaya bersopan dan bersusila.

  2. Kesopanan dan kesusilaan merupakan nilai-nilai murni yang melambangkan keperibadian seseorang individu.

  3. Kesopanan dan kesusilaan menjamin kehidupan masyarakat harmoni, penyayang, dan saling menghormati.

Dasar Pendidikan Kebangsaan dan Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan

  1. Laporan Barnes 1950

  1. Cadangan laporan Barnes:

  1. Semua sekolah vernacular Melayu, Cina, dan Tamil dibubarkan dan digantikan dengan satu jenis sekolahsahaja iaitu sekolah kebangsaan.

  2. Sekolah kebangsaan akan menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa penghantar pada peringkat sekolah rendah.

  3. Bahasa Inggeris akan digunakan di sekolah peringkat menengah dan peringkat yang lebih tinggi.

  1. Cadangan Laporan Barnes ditentang oleh masyarakat Cina kerana menggangap bahasa ibunda mereka akan tergugat.

  1. Laporan fenn-Wu 1951

  1. Laporan Fenn-Wu yang mewakili orang cina mencadangkan supaya sekolah vernakular cina terus dikekalkan.

  2. Laporan ini bersetuju dengan pembentukan sistem pendidikan kebangsaan.

  1. Ordinan Pelajaran 1952

  1. Diperkenalkan dengan mengambil kira Laporan Barnes dan Laporan Fenn-Wu.

  2. Cadangan Ordinan Pelajaran:

  1. Pengenalan dua sistem persekolahan yang menggunakan dua bahasa penghantar iaitu bahasa Inggeris dan bahasa Melayu.

  2. Pengajaran bahasa Cina dan Tamil akan disediakan sekiranya ada permintaan daripada ibu bapa.

  3. Bahasa Melayu wajib diajar di sekolah Inggeris dan bahasa Inggeris wajib diajar di sekolah Melayu.

  1. Ordinan Pelajaran 1952 tidak dapat dilaksanakan kerana:

  1. Tentangan daripada masyarakat cina dan India.

  2. Kekurangan kewangan.

  3. Ancaman pengganas komunis.

  1. Penyata Razak 1956

  1. Penyata Razak 1956 mengemukakan dua elemen penting dalam dasar pendidikan yang dapat menyubuhkan semangat perpaduan Negara iaitu:

  1. Sistem persekolahan yang sama bagi semua penduduk.

  2. Penyeragaman kurikulum yang bercorak kebangsaan.

  1. Cadangan Penyata Razak:

  1. Penubuhan Sekolah Rendah Umum yang menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa pengantar dan Sekolah Jenis Umum yang menggunakan bahasa Inggeris, Cina, dan Tamil sebagai bahasa pengantar.

  2. Sekolah menengah Melayu akan menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa pengantar.

  3. Bahasa Melayu dan bahasa Inggeris wajib diajar di semua sekolah.

  1. Penyata Razak mengemukakan cadangan penting kea rah pembentukan bangsa yang bersatu-padu melalui dasar pendidikan yang menggambarkan perasaan dan harapan masyarakat berbilang kaum di Tanah Melayu.

  2. Penyata Razak telah dijadkan sebagai Ordinan Pelajaran 1957

  1. Penyata Rahman 1960

  1. Pada tahun 1960, sebuah jawatankuasa yang dipengerusikan oleh Menteri Pelajaran, Encik Abdul Rahman Haji Talib ditubuhkan untuk mengkaji Ordinan Pelajaran 1957

  2. Laporan ini mencadangkan beberapa syor baru sebagai tambahan kepada Penyata Razak:

    Sekolah Umum dan Jenis Umum

    Sekolah Umum dijadikan sekolah Kebangsaan dan Sekolah Jenis Umum dijadikan Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan untuk memupuk semangat perpaduan kaum.

    Pelajaran percuma

    Pelajaran percuma diberikan kepada semua pelajar sekolah rendah kerajaan tanpa mengira keturunanan dan agama.

    Bahasa Melayu

    Penggunaan Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan ditekankan sebagai sekolah rendah berbahasa Inggeris ditukar kepada bahasa Melayu. Bahasa Melayu dijadikan bahasa pengantar di semua sekolah menengah.

    Pendidikan Agama

    Pelajaran agama Islam akan diajar di semua sekolah bantuan penuh kerajaan yang mempunyai tidak kurang daripada 15 orang pelajar Islam.

    Bahasa Cina dan Tamil

    Bahasa Cina dan bahasa Tamil akan diajar di sekolah kebangsaan sekiranya terdapat sekurang-kurangnya 15 orang pelajar.

    Peperiksaan Awam

    Semua peperiksaan awam akan diadakan dalam bahasa kebangsaan.

  3. Syor-syor dalam Laporan Rahman Talib telah diterima dan digubal menjadi Akta Pelajaran 1961.

Akta Bahasa Kebangsaan

  1. Langkah-langkah untuk memajukan bahasa Melayu:

  1. Penubuhan Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka pada tahun 1956 untuk menjadikan bahasa Melayu sebagai salah satu bahasa utama di dunia.

  2. Pelancaran “Minggu Bahasa” dan “Bulan Bahasa” untuk menggalakkan penggunaan bahasa Melayu.

  3. Pelancaran slogan “Bahasa Jiwa Bangsa” pada tahun 1960.

  4. Penubuhan sekolah menengah yang menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa pengantar seperti Sekolah Alam Shah, Sekolah Seri Puteri, Sekolah Sultan Abdul Halim.

  5. Akta Bahasa Kebangsaan diluluskan pada tahun 1967 untuk mengukuhkan lagi kedudukan bahasa Melayu.

  6. Pada tahun 1970, bahasa pengantar di sekolah rendah Inggeris telah ditukar kepada bahasa kebangsaan secara berperingkat-peringkat.

  7. Penubuhan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia pada tahun 1977 membuktikan bahawa bahasa Melayu mampu menjadi bahasa ilmu.

  8. Mulai tahun 1982, bahasa Melayu menjadi bahasa pengantar di semua sekolah untuk menggantikan bahasa Inggeris.

  9. Pada tahun 1990, bahasa Melayu mula digunakan di mahkamah.


Konflik Antarabangsa

Perang Dunia Pertama (1914-1918)

  1. Faktor politik:

  1. Kemunculan nasionalisme:

  1. Pada hujung abad ke-19, Negara-negara kecil di Eropah telah bersatu dan membentuk Negara bangsa yang lebih besar seperti Jerman dan Itali.

  2. Jerman dan Itali mengatasi kuasa besar lain seperti Britain, Perancis, Austria-Hungary, dan Rusia dalam usaha mendapatkan tanah jajahan.

  3. Nasionalisme yang kuat menyebabkan kuasa-kuasa besar ini sanggup berperang bagi membuktikan kekuasaan masing-masing.

  1. Sistem pakatan Negara-negara Eropah:

  1. Menjelang awal abad ke-20, Negara-negara Eropah mempunyai dua pakatan iaitu Perikatan Kuasa Tengah dan Pakatan Bertiga.

  2. Persaingan antara kedua-dua pakatan ini mulai mengancam pertimbangan kuasa dunia masa itu.

  1. Faktor ekonomi:

  1. Perebutan peluang ekonomi

  1. Menjelang penghujung abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, berlaku persaingan sengit antara kuasa-kuasa Eropah akibat Imperialisme Baru.

  2. Kuasa baru mulai bersaing bagi membentuk lingkungan pengaruh masing-masing untuk mendapatkan bahan mentah dan untuk memasarkan barang siap mereka.

  1. Faktor pemangkin:

  1. Pembunuhan pewaris takhta

  1. Faktor segera yang mencetuskan Perang Dunia Pertama ialah pembunuhan pewaris takhta Austria-Hungary, Archduke Franz Ferdinand dan isterinya, Duchess Sophie di Sarajevo pada 28 Jun 1914 oleh seorang pengganas Serbia.

  2. Austria dengan sokongan Jerman mengisytiharkan perang terhadap Serbia pada 28 Julai 1914.

  3. Serbia pula mendapat sokongan sekutunya, Perancis dan Rusia.

  4. Serangan Jerman terhadap Perancis melalui Belgium (Negara berkecuali) menimbulkan kemarahan Britain.

  5. Britain yang sememangnya memusuhi Jerman turut campur tangan dalam peperangan ini. Britain kemudiannya meminta bantuan Amerika Syarikat.

  6. Serangan Jerman terhadap kapal dagang Amerika Syarikat turut menyebabkan Amerika Syarikat terlibat dalam peperangantersebut.

Kesan Perang Dunia Pertama

  1. Kesan Politik:

  1. Perang dunia pertama menamatkan pemerintahan beraja di Eropah.

  2. Termeterainya Perjanjian Versailles

  1. Persidangan damai yang diadakan pada bulan Jun 1919 telah membawa kepada pemeteraian Perjanjian Versailles.

  2. Perjanjian ini mengubah peta Eropah dengan membentuk beberapa buah Negara yang baru.

  1. Pembentukan Liga Bangsa

  1. Liga Bangsa ditubuhkan pada tahun 1919 berdasarkan Perjanjian Versailles.

  2. Matlamat utama Liga Bangsa ialah:

  • Menggalakkan keamanan.

  • Menggalakkan kerjasama antarabangsa.

  • Menjamin keselamatan bersama.

  1. Kesan Ekonomi:

  1. Inflasi dan hutang peperangan

  1. Negara-negara yang berperang mengalami inflasi dan beban hutang peperangan yang tinggi akibat perbelanjaan perang yang besar.

  2. Pada akhir peperangan, Pakatan Bertiga membelanjakan US$125 billion manakala Perikatan Kuasa Tengah membelanjakan US$60 billion.

  3. Perbelanjaan yang besar ini membawa kepada masalah inflasi dan penggangguran.

  4. Pasaran dunia juga mulai diambil alih oleh Amerika Syarikat dan Jepun.

  5. Perang Dunia Pertama menyebabkan Britain kehilangan satu pertiga daripada perdagangan luarnya.

  1. Kesan sosial:

  1. Perang Dunia Pertama menyebabkan kehilangan nyawa yang banyak.

Perang Dunia Kedua (1939-1945)

Faktor-faktor Mencetuskan Perang Dunia Kedua

  1. Faktor politik:

  1. Kesan Perjanjian Versailles

  1. Kegagalan Perjanjian Versailles menyelesaikan masalah Perang Dunia Pertama mencetuskan Perang Dunia Kedua.

  2. Perjanjian Versailles menimbulkan rasa tidak puas hati di Jerman kerana:

  • Jerman kehilangan tanah jajahannya.

  • Terpaksa membayar pampas an perang yang tinggi.

  • Jerman diarahkan untuk mengurangkan saiz angkatan tenteranya.

  1. DI Jerman, muncul pemimpin baru iaitu Adolf Hilter yang Berjaya menguasai Jerman melalui partinya, National Socialist.

  2. Hilter mengingkari Perjanjian Versailles dengan membina sebuah angkatan tentera yang besar.

  1. Perubahan politik di Jerman, Soviet Union, Itali, dan Jepun

  1. Di Rusia:

  • Rusia mengalami perang saudara dan pihak komunis berjaya mengalahkan pihak lawan yang dibantu oleh Amerika Syarikat, Perancis, dan Jepun.

  • Vladimir Lenin Berjaya mengukuhkan ideology komunis di Rusia.

  1. Di Itali:

  • Itali di bawah pimpinan Benito Mussolini telah menjajah Habsyah (Ethiopia).

  • Pada tahun 1940, Itali mencerobohi Perancis.

  1. Di Timur:

  • Di Timur, Jepun muncul sebagai sebuah kuasa yang ingin menguasai Negara-negara di Timur dan berasa bertanggungjawab untuk membebaskan Negara-negara ini daripada penjajahan Barat.

  1. Faktor ekonomi:

  1. Kemelesetan ekonomi:

  1. Pada tahun 1929, Amerika Syarikat mengalami kemelesetan ekonomi.

  2. Amerika Syarikat tidak mampu lagi menyediakan pinjaman kepada Jerman untuk membayar hutang.

  3. Negara-negara Eropah lain seperti Britain, Perancis, dan Itali mengurangkan peruntukan ketenteraan.

  4. Jerman pula sebaliknya mengukuhkan ketenteraannya dan menjalankan perluasan kuasa untuk mengalihkan perhatian rakyatnya daripada masalah ekonomi.

  5. Jepun juga bertindak seperti Jerman untuk mengukuhkan ketenteraannya dan menjalankan dasar perluasan kuasa.

Kesan Perang Dunia Kedua

  1. Kesan politik:

  1. Perang Dunia Kedua menyebabkan Negara Jerman terbahagi kepada dua iaitu Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur.

  2. Keruntuhan sistem imperialism dan pembentukan Negara baru yang merdeka:

  1. Satu demi satu tanah jajahan mendapat kemerdekaan daripada kuasa-kuasa besar Eropah.

  2. Negara-negara baru ini terpaksa menangani masalah yang timbul akibat warisan ekonomi penjajah dan membangunkan ekonomi masing-masing.

  1. Penubuhan Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu (PBB).

  2. Meletusnya Perang Dingin.

  1. Kesan sosial:

  1. Perang Dunia Kedua menyebabkan jumlah korban nyawa yang tinggi.

  2. Perang Dunia Kedua turut menimbulkan kesedaran peri pentingnya kesejahteraan dan kedamaian dunia. Kesedaran ini membawa kepada penubuhan Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu (PBB).

Perang Dingin

  1. Perang Dingin berlaku sejak tamatnya Perang Dunia Kedua sehinggalah tahun 1989 dengan hancurnya sistem komunis Soviet Union.

  2. Perang Dingin berlaku disebabkan oleh ideologi dan fahaman politik yang berbeza.

  3. Persaingan kuasa berlaku antara blok kapitalis yang diketuai oleh Amerika Syarikat dengan blok komunis yang diketuai oleh Soviet Union.

  4. Perang ini dikenal sebagai Perang Dingin kerana tidak berlaku sebarang konflik yang melibatkan senjata secara langsung antara kedua-dua blok tersebut.

  5. Kesan Perang Dingin:

  1. Pembentukan blok dunia.

  2. Penubuhan NATO.

  3. Penubuhan Pakatan Warsaw.

  4. Penubuhan Pertubuhan Perjanjian Asia Tenggara atau South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO).

  5. Berlaku perlumbaan senjata.

Peranan dan Sumbangan Malaysia dalam Pertubuhan Antarabangsa


  1. Komanwel ditubuhkan pada tahun 1931.

  2. Anggotanya terdiri daripada Negara bekas jajahan Britain yang telah merdeka.

  3. Terdiri daripada 54 buah Negara anggota Negara maju dan Negara sedang membangun.

  4. Pada tahun 1965, Sekretariat Komanwel telah ditubuhkan dan beribu pejabat di London.

  5. Matlamat Komanwel:

  1. Membina semangat setia kawan dalam kalangan Negara anggota.

  2. Mewujudkan kerjasama dalam semua bidang.

  1. Faedah-faedah yang diperolehi Malaysia daripada Komanwel:

  1. Kerjasama pertahanan

  1. Selepas merdeka, Negara-negara Komanwel telah membantu Malaysia dalam memelihara keamanan dan kedaulatan Negara dengan penyekat perjuangan Parti Komunis Malaya.

  2. Perjanjian pertahanan antara Malaysia dengan Britain, Australia, dan New Zealand juga menjanjikan bantuan mereka kepada Malaysia apabila Malaysia diserang oleh mana-mana pihak seperti semasa konfrontasi Indonesia-Malaysia.

  1. Keistimewaan perdagangan

  1. Dari segi perdagangan, eksport Malaysia ke Negara-negara Komanwel terutamanya Britain telah dikenakan cukai yang rendah.

  2. Keistimewaan ini terhakis apabila Britain menyertai pertubuhan Kesatuan Eropah (EU).

  1. Rancangan Colombo

  1. Rancangan Colombo menyediakan bantuan teknikal dan biasiswa dalam bidang pendidikan.

  1. Sumbangan Malaysia kepada Komanwel:

  1. Tuan Rumah Mesyuarat Ketua-ketua Kerajaan Komanwel

  1. Malaysia menjadi tuan rumah kepada Mesyuarat Ketua-ketua Kerajaan Komanwel (CHOGM) pada tahun 1989 di Kuala Lumpur.

  2. Mesyuarat Ketua-ketua Kerajaan Komanwel atau Commonwealth Head of Government Meeting (CHOGM) diadakan dalam kalangan Negara anggota setiap dua tahun sekali.

  3. Mesyuarat ini menyediakan ruang bagi pertemuan ketua-ketua kerajaan untuk membincangkan hal-hal kepentingan bersama.

  1. Pengisytiharan Deklarasi Langkawi

  1. Deklarasi Langkawi diisytiharkan dalam mesyuarat CHOGM di Malaysia pada tahun 1989.

  2. Deklarasi Langkawi merupakan persetujuan yang ditandatangani di Langkawi berhubung dengan tanggungjawab Negara-negara Komanwel dalam mengawal dan mengatasi masalah pencemaran.

  1. Menentang Dasar Apartheid

  1. Malaysia dengan lantang bersuara entang Dasar Apartheid di Afrika Selatan yang menyalahgunakan hak asasi manusia.

  1. Malaysia Berjaya menganjurkan Sukan Komanwel pada tahun 1998.

Pergerakan Negara-negara Berkecuali (NAM)

  1. NAM ditubuhkan pada bulan September 1961 semasa kemuncak Perang Dingin.

  2. Ahli NAM merupakan Negara-negara membangun di Asia, Afrika, dan Amerika Latin.

  3. Anggota NAM terdiri daripada 113 buah Negara, 16 buah Negara sebagai pemerhati, dan 28 buah Negara merupakan tetamu jemputan.

  4. Malaysia menyertai NAM pada tahun 1970 setelah berlakunya perubahan dasar luar Malaysia daripada dasar pro Barat dan antikomunis kepada dasar berbaik-baik dengan semua Negara.

  5. Matlamat NAM ialah mengekalkan keamanan dunia tanpa menyokong blok Barat atau blok komunis.

  6. Prinsip perjuangan NAM:

  1. Mengelakkan campur tangan asing dalam hal ehwal sesebuah Negara.

  2. Menghormati kedaulatan sesebuah negara.

  3. Menyelesaikan sebarang pertelingkahan antara Negara melalui perundingan dan persefahaman.

  1. Sumbangan Malaysia dalam NAM:

  1. Mengemukakan usul

  1. Dalam Sidang Kemuncak Ketujuh di New Delhi pada tahun 1987, Malaysia telah mengemukakan beberapa usul bagi membela kepentingan Negara-negara sedang membangun.

  2. Antaranya ialah, isu Palestin, kerjasama ekonomi, isu Benua Antartika.

  1. Menentang dasar Apartheid

  1. Dalam Sidang Kemuncak Kelapan di Harare, Zimbabwe, Malaysia mencadangkan Dasar Apartheid di Afrika Selatan dihapuskan.

  1. Pada tahun 1989, Malaysia diberi penghormatan apabila dipilih sebagai Naib Presiden dalam Sidang Kemuncak NAM di Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

  2. Ahli kumpulan 16

  1. Malaysia juga dilantik sebagai ahli Kumpulan 16 yang membincangkan isu kerjasama politik Negara anggota.

  1. Tuan Rumah Sidang Kemuncak NAM

  1. Malaysia menjadi tuan rumah kepada Sidang Kemuncak NAM ke-13 pada tahun 2003.

  2. Sidang kemuncak ini mencatatkan penyertaan tertinggi dengan kehadiran 63 negara ahli iaitu 31 Ketua Negara dan 32 Ketua Kerajaan.

  3. Sidang Kemuncak ini juga Berjaya mendaftarkan dua Negara anggota baru iaitu Timur Leste dan Pulau Catalina.

  4. Sidang ini juga Berjaya menganjurkan satu mesyuarat tidak rasmi OIC.

  1. Deklarasi Kuala Lumpur

  1. Deklarasi Kuala Lumpur menekankan pada usaha menghidupkan kembali NAM dan penyertaan bersama telah dikeluarkan tentang kedudukan Palestin dan serangan Amerika Syarikat terhadap Iraq.

Pertubuhan Persidangan Islam (OIC)

  1. OIC ditubuhkan pada tahun 1971 atas cadangan Tunku Abdul Rahman.

  2. OIC beribu pejabat di Jeddah, Arab Saudi.

  3. Semasa ditubuhkan, ahli OIC terdiri daripada 57 buah Negara dengan tiga buah Negara lagi sebagai pemerhati.

  4. Matlamat utama OIC:

  1. Mengeratkan hubungan sesame Negara Islam dalam segala bidang.

  2. Bersuara dalam satu nada bagi kepentingan umat Islam.

  3. Mengekalkan perdamaian dalam segala persengketan antara Negara Islam.

  4. Bersama-sama memastikan tempat-tempat suci Islam dihormati dan tidak dicemari.

  1. Peranan OIC:

  1. OIC banyak member bantuan kepada Negara-negara Islam yang menghadapi masalah seperti menghantar pasukan perubatan ke Lubnan, Bosnia, dan Afghanistan.

  2. Bantuan dalam bentuk kewangan diberikan kepada Negara-negara Islam yang kurang maju seperti Sudan, Nigeria, dan Chad.

  3. OIC menubuhkan Bank Pembangunan Islam untuk memberikan perkhidmatan kewangan kepada Negara anggota.

  1. Sumbangan Malaysia kepada OIC:

  1. Setiausaha Agung OIC:

  1. Tunku Abdul Rahman telah diberi penghormatan untuk menjadi Setiausaha Agung OIC yang pertama.

  1. Isu Iran-Iraq

  1. Malaysia menjadi perantaraan dalam menyelesaikan peperangan Iran-Iraq.

  1. Isu Palestin

  1. Malaysia memberikan sokongan kepada rakyat Palestin dalam perjuangan mereka untuk mendapatkan semula tanah air mereka daripada Israel.

  1. Tuan Rumah Persidangan OIC

  1. Malaysia pernah menjadi tuan rumah persidangan OIC pada tahun 1974 dan 2003.

  1. Menganjurkan persidangan

  1. Pada tahun 2002, Malaysia menganjurkan persidangan menentang pengganas dalam kalangan Negara Islam.

  1. Tawaran biasiswa

  1. Malaysia menawarkan biasiswa kepada para pelajar dari Negara OIC untuk belajar di Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM).

  1. Penggunaan dinar emas

  1. Malaysia mengesyorkan penggunaan dinar emas dalam kalangan Negara Islam untuk urusan perdagangan dan kegiatan ekonomi yang lain.

  1. Faedah yang diperolehi Malaysia daripada OIC:

  1. Pinjaman wang

  1. Malaysia mendapat pinjaman daripada Bank Pembangunan Islam bagi melaksanakan projek-projek pembangunan untuk kepentingan rakyat.

  1. Penubuhan UIAM

  1. OIC telah member bantuan kepada Malaysia untuk menubuhkan Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM).

  1. Penghormatan

  1. Malaysia mendapat penghormatan daripada Negara anggota yang lain kerana amat serius dalam memperjuangkan hak dan kebajikan Negara-negara Islam.

Comments (0) | 15-Dec-09 9:17:25 AM

1.       Diagram below shows metabolic pathway in a human cell in which substrate A is converted to end product D with the aid of three different enzymes. Substrates B and C are intermediate products.

 Substrate A

            Enzyme P

 Substrate B

             Enzyme Q

 Substrate C

                      Enzyme R

       End product D

(a)    Explain what happens to the rate of production of the end product D if

(i)     The concentration of substrate A increases

Increasing the concentration of substrate A would lead to more collisions between the molecules of substrate A and enzyme P. Thus, more molecules of substrates B and C are produced and, subsequently, the rate of production of end product D will be higher.

(ii)    The concentration of enzyme P increases, while the concentration of enzymes Q and R remain the same.

If the concentration of enzymes P increases, more molecules of substrate A will be converted into substrate B. However since the concentrations of enzymes Q and R remain the same (the concentration of the enzymes is the limiting factor), the excess substrate B cannot be metabolized, and the rate of the production of end product D remains the same.

(iii)  The temperature increases from 100C to 250C

When the temperature increases, the higher kinetic energy of the reactants leads to more frequent collisions between the substrate and enzyme molecules. This results in a higher production rate of end product D.

(iv)  The pH of the medium is increased above the optimal level.

The change in pH alters the charges on the active sites of the enzymes and the surfaces of the substrates. This reduces the ability of both molecules to bind to each other, and the production rate of D decreases.

2.      A team of 10 mountaineers went on a mountain climbing expedition. They started the climb at sea level and ascended to a height of 4800 m in 20 days. They spent another 60 days at this altitude before returning to sea level. During the expeditions, red blood cell counts of the mountaineers were made. Table below shows the mean red blood cell counts of the mountaineers.

Time (days)

Mean red blood cell count (x 1012 per dm3)























(a)    Describe the changes in the mean red blood cell counts for the following periods:

(i)       0 to 30 days: The mean red blood cell counts increase proportionally with time. The number of red blood cells increases even when the mountaineers have reached the highest altitude.

(ii)     30 to 80 days: The mean red blood cell counts continue to increase but at a slower rate. The peak period for the production of red blood cells is between 60 and 70 days. The slower rate of red blood cell production is the results of acclimatization of the bodies of the mountaineers to the high altitude.

(iii)    80 to 100 days: The number of red blood cells decreases with time when the altitude decreases. This decrease is more rapid than the increase but the number of red blood cells is higher at the end than at the start of the expedition. At a lower altitude, the body does not need to produce as many numbers of red blood cells as at a higher altitude.

(b)   Explain the importance of the increases in the mean blood cell counts at high altitudes.

At high altitudes, the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen is low. The higher number of red blood cells means more hemoglobin is available to transport oxygen.

(c)    State one other physiological change that is likely to occur to these mountaineers as they ascended to a height of 4800 m.

An increase in the rate of breathing.

(d)   Suggest why some athletes train at high altitudes in preparation for a race.

To increase the number of red blood cells in the blood so that more oxygen can be transported during a race.

3.      The family tree in diagram below shows the inheritance of red-green color blindness in humans. The allele B for normal color vision is dominant over the allele b for color blindness.






 (a)    What is this type of inheritance called?

Sex-linked inheritance

(b)   What are the genotypes of individuals A and B? Explain your answers.

A: XBXb                                     B: XBXb

This is because A has two sons who are color blind. This means that the sons inherited the recessive allele from their mother. B also has a son who is color blind. This means that the son also inherited the recessive allele from his mother.

4.       The distribution of stomata in three plants is shown in table below.


Number of stomata per mm2 of leaf

Upper epidermis

Lower epidermis










Based on the distribution, which plant is most probably an aquatic plant? Explain your answer.

Y because the stomata are distributed on the upper epidermis of the leaves. This adaption enables plant Y to exchange gases with the atmosphere efficiently.

5.       (a) Where do aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration take place in a cell?

Aerobic respiration takes place in mitochondrion. Anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm.

(b)   State two differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

In aerobic respiration, the oxidation of glucose is complete whereas in anaerobic respiration, the oxidation of glucose is incomplete. Aerobic respiration produces 38 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule whereas anaerobic respiration produces 2 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule.

(c)    A marathon runner depends highly on aerobic respiration for energy but a 100m sprinter depends highly on anaerobic respiration for energy. Explain why.

A marathon runner starts his running at a slower pace compared to a sprinter. He needs a constant supply of oxygen to generate continuous energy to maintain his running pace for a long distance and duration. A sprinter, however, requires a burst of energy to run speedily in a short distance and for a short duration. Therefore, there is a shortfall of oxygen supply which causes his muscle cells to respire anaerobically.

(d)   If you were a sports instructor, what type of exercise would you recommend to a person who wants to lose weight? Give an example of an exercise and explain why.

An exercise that depends mainly on aerobic respiration such as jogging or aerobic dance. This type of exercise requires a constant supply of energy and body fats are burned in the process.

6.       An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of light on the growth of young oat seedlings. The seedling were given different treatments and exposed to light from one direction as shown in diagram

(i)     What is the chemical responsible for the growth of the seedlings in the experiment?


(ii)                    Where is the chemical produced in a plant?

At the tips of the shoots or roots

(iii)  Based on the growth response of the oat seedlings, state two characteristics of the chemical.

Auxin is sensitive to light. It diffuses from the illuminated side and accumulates on the shaded side of the shoot tip. Auxin can diffuse through agar.

(iv)  Explain the difference in the results obtained for the seedlings number 3 and 5.

In seedling number 3, the shoot is not exposed to light and, therefore, auxin diffuses uniformly downwards, causing the shoot tip to grow upwards. In seedling number 5, auxin is prevented from diffusing downwards by the mica plate. As a result, the seedling cannot bend toward the light source.

(v)   Which part of the oat seedling is affected by the chemical?

The zone of elongation.

(vi)  Predict the response of the oat seedlings numbered 1 and 4 if the source of light is moved from the side to directly above the seedlings.

Both the oat seedlings grow straight upwards.

7.       Table below shows the concentrations of glucose and urea at T4 and T3.


Concentration at T4 (g I-1)

Concentration at T3 (g I-1)







Explain the changes in the concentration of two substances in T3.

No glucose is found in T3 because all glucose is reabsorbed into the blood at T4. The concentration of urea increases is reabsorbed at the loop of Henle and at T2. At the same time, more urea is secreted at T2.

8.       Table below shows the percentage of various gases in inhaled air and exhaled air. Based on the table, suggest an explanation for the difference between the percentages of carbon dioxide in the air samples collected for inhaled air and exhaled air.


Inhaled air

Exhaled air




Carbon Dioxide



Water vapor






The higher percentage of carbon dioxide in the sample of exhaled air is due to cellular respiration which takes place in the cells. Cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide which is expelled in the exhaled air.

9.       (a) Discuss how the muscles, ligaments, tendons and bones are structured and organized to produce movements at the joint.

Movements result from the pulling action of muscles on the bones of the skeleton. The bones of the skeleton are hard and can act like levers. When muscles pull on these levers, movements are produced. Joints are places where two bones meet. Muscle tissues are attached to the bones on either side of a joint. Muscles are attached to bones through tendons. Muscles produce movements by exerting the force of tendons which are attached to bones. Since a muscle can only pull, it has to be extended back to its original length by the action of another muscle. Therefore, muscles must work in pairs. These pairs of muscles are called antagonistic muscles. This means that when one muscle is contracting (shortening), the other is relaxing and being stretched. The biceps and triceps muscles of the arm illustrate the action of antagonistic muscles. When the biceps muscle a contract, the lower arm flexes (bends) at the elbow joint and the triceps muscle is stretched. When the triceps muscle contracts, the lower arm extends (straighten), and the biceps muscle is stretched.

(b)   Table below shows the Air Pollutant Index (API) and the temperature recorded in a few cities and villages in Malaysia.


Temperature (0C)


Kuala Lumpur



Petaling Jaya



Johor Bahru









Bukit Katil





Index:     0-50                     : Good

                  51-100                 : Moderate

                  101-200              : Unhealthy

                  201-300              : Very unhealthy

                  Over 301            : Hazardous





Based on the data in Table above, explain why temperature and API reading in the cities differ from those of the rural areas. Describe the effects of these differences on city dwellers.

In the cities, there are many tall buildings with glasses which reflect sunlight and heat. This heat is trapped between the tall buildings. As a result, the temperature in the cities rises. There are more gases like carbon dioxide in the cities due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide traps heat and causes the temperature in the cities to rise. There are also fewer trees in the cities to provide shades. The API readings are higher in the cities because there are more activities that contribute to the higher API readings in the cities than in the rural areas. For example, the burning of fossil fuels in power stations, industrial boilers and the internal combustion engines of vehicles are the main sources of air pollution in the cities. The air in the cities contains a complex mixture of very small liquid droplets and solid particles in the air, such as soot, smoke and dust. Other air pollutants include gases such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO) and fine particulate matter. These air pollutants have detrimental effects on city dwellers. For example, particles in smoke irate the eyes and nose, and can damage the cells of the alveoli. Sulphur dioxide aggravates existing diseases such as bronchitis. Oxides of nitrogen can lead to the irritation of the lungs, nose, throat and eyes.

10.   (a) Describe the role of the hypothalamus, the pituitary hormones, and the ovarian hormones in the regulation of the human menstrual cycle. In your discussion, include the concept of feedback control and the way in which fertilization of the ovum alters the menstrual cycle.

The reduced level of progesterone at the end of the menstrual cycle results in a positive feedback. If no longer inhibits the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is once again released by the hypothalamus. The release of GnRH, in turn, stimulates the release of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Thus, FSH and LH stimulate the development of new follicles secrete oestrogen. The high level of oestrogen stimulates both the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This exerts a positive feedback on the hypothalamus, resulting in increased secretion of GnRH. High levels of GnRH, in turn; cause the secretion of FSH and LH to increase. LH stimulates ovulation and the remaining follicle tissue to change into a corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and oestrogen. The combination of oestrogen progesterone inhibits the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (negative feedback). As a result, the secretion of FSH and LH is halted. This prevents the development of more follicles and ovulation. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum starts to disintegrate. As the corpus luteum disintegrates, the levels of oestrogen and progesterone, the endometrium break down, disintegrates, and blood and tissues are shed. If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum will not degenerate. Thus, the levels of progesterone and oestrogen continue to rise. This inhibits the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (negative feedback). As a result, the secretion of FSH and LH ceases during pregnancy.


(b)   An Rh-positive man marries an Rh-negative woman. The couple plan to have a child. AS a geneticist, explain the consequences to the first child if the child is Rh-positive. If the mother intends to have a second child, explain the consequences of this pregnancy if the child is also Rh-positive. Suggest what the couple can do to avoid complications in both pregnancies.

Rhesus incompatibility arises when an Rh-negative woman has an Rh-positive baby. In the first pregnancy, if the foetus is Rh-positive, fragments of the Rh-positive red blood cells of the foetus may enter the bloodstream of the Rh-negative mother. This causes the mother’s immune system to react by producing Rhesus antibodies against the antigen. The antibodies enter the foetus blood circulatory system through the placenta. Normally, the amount of antibodies formed is not sufficient to have any effect on the firstborn. However, in a subsequent pregnancy, the antibodies from the mother may enter the foetus blood circulatory system and agglutinate its red blood cells. This causes an excessive breakdown of red blood cells in the foetus. The second baby will die if its blood is not replaced with Rh-negative blood in a blood transfusion. This problem can be prevented if the mother receives anti-Rhesus globulin injection to protect the red blood cells of the foetus.

11.   Fish and humans have different respiratory systems which help them adapt to their respective habitats. Explain the structural adaptations of the respiratory surfaces of fish and humans for gaseous exchange in different habitats.

Structural adaptations of the respiratory surfaces of fish:

Fish has gills which are respiratory structures specialized for gaseous exchange in water. Each gill has two rows of thin filaments, and each filament has numerous thin-walled lamellae. The large surfaces area of the filaments and lamellae increases the efficiency for gaseous exchange. The membranes of the gill filaments are thin. This allows the absorption of respiratory gases into the blood to occur at a fast rate.  The filaments are also supplied with a network of blood capillaries for efficient exchange and transport of respiratory gases. The gill filaments, which are constantly surrounded by water, enable respiratory gases to dissolve easily in the membranes.

Structural adaptations of the respiratory surfaces of humans:

Gaseous exchange in humans occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. The lungs contain millions of air sacs called alveoli. The high number of alveoli provides a large surface area for gaseous exchange. The inner surface of each alveolus is lined with a layer of moist epithelial cells which allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to dissolve in them. The entire outer surface of each alveolus is covered by a dense network of blood capillaries which provide a large surface area for the rapid diffusion of gases to and from the alveoli. The wall of an alveolus is one-cell thick. Hence, diffusion of gases can occur across the membranes easily.

In their effort to increase the quality of life, humans often bring about environment pollution.



State your opinions regarding the above statement and suggest the measures that can be taken to manage development activities and the ecosystem so that a balanced nature is maintained.

Use of technology to overcome problems related to the environment. For example, the use of unleaded petrol can reduce the emission of lead into the environment. Sewage should be treated in sewage treatment plants before it is discharged to reduce water pollution. Educate the public on the importance of protecting and caring for the environment through the mass media and environmental campaigns. Preserve and conserve soil, water, and forests. For example, practice good farming techniques and create more forest reserves. Practice biological control instead of using pesticides to control pests. Biological control uses natural predators to control the population of pest species and does not pollute the environment. Encourage the use of renewable energy, for example, solar energy, which can be converted into electricity and used for heating or other purposes.


Distilled water has different effects on red blood cells and on onion cells when both cells are placed in equal volumes of distilled water.

(a) A student made the following observation.



Explain the student’s observation.

Distilled water is hypotonic cytoplasm of red blood cells and the cell sap of the onion cells. During osmosis, there is a net flow of water from the surroundings into the cell. The red blood cells will swell and eventually burst. The vacuoles in the onion cells expand, and the plant cells become turgid. However, the cell wall prevents the onion cells from bursting because it is tough and rigid.

(b)   Some housewives believe that soaking vegetables in salt solution before cooking them can help eliminate the harmful effects of insecticides that have been sprayed on the vegetables.

(i)     Explain why vegetables become soft if they have been soaked too long in salt solution.

Vegetables which are soaked too long in a salt solution will become soft because the salt solution is hypertonic to the cytoplasm of the vegetable cells.  Water flows out of the cells, causing the cytoplasm and the vacuoles to shrink. The plasma membranes pull away from the cell walls. In this condition, the cells are said to be plasmolysed.

(ii)    Suggest how the housewives can restore the drooped vegetables to their normal condition.

To make the vegetables crisp again, housewives can soak the vegetables in water.

(c)    Describe in detail how the following can be transported across the plasma membrane.

(i)     Amino acids

Transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane: Amino acids move across the plasma membrane through facilitated diffusion. Amino acids are transported from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration with the help of carrier proteins. The amino acid moves towards the active site of specific carrier proteins and binds to it. The carrier protein changes its shape to transport the amino acid across plasma membrane. The carrier protein assumes its original shape and is free to assist the passage of other amino acid molecules into the cells.

(ii)    Sodium ions

Transport of sodium ions across the plasma membrane: The transport of sodium ions across the plasma membrane is active transport. The concentration of sodium ions is higher outside the cells. Sodium ions are transported against the concentration gradient that is from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration. In active transport, sodium ions move forwards the carrier protein. Each carrier protein has a site for the binding of three sodium ions at one time, and another side for ATP. The ATP molecule is split into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) and P (phosphate). The phosphate group (P) attaches itself to the carrier protein. The splitting of ATP releases energy to the carrier protein. Energy from the ATP changes the shape of the carrier protein and this causes the carrier protein to release the three sodium ions outside the cell.



Not a single organism on Earth can live independently. When a species becomes extinct, many other species are affected. Their disappearance has a great impact on humans.


Based on the above statement, suggest three reasons why biodiversity is important to mankind. Discuss the measures that can be taken to conserve and preserve biodiversity.

Biodiversity refers to the diverse species of plants and animals interacting with one another on this planet.  Biodiversity is important because: The diverse species and the variety of ecosystems in the biosphere provide human with various goods or products, including food, medicine, timber and oils. The variety of species and ecosystems interact with one another to regulate the nutrient cycles and the local climate. Through the interactions among them and the ecosystems, all species obtain food, shelter and their other needs. If a species disappears, other species which depend on this species may also die and the whole ecosystem is affected. To protect biodiversity we need to conserve and preserve: Conservation refers to the efforts to return and affected ecosystem to its natural equilibrium, for example, implementing replanting programmes. Preservation refers to the efforts to protect the ecosystem and ensure wildlife is not threatened with extinction. Both measures ensure that the equilibrium of the ecosystem is maintained and natural resources are utilized in a sustainable way. For example, sustainable agricultural development is the effective use and preservation of soil to ensure continuous agricultural production. So, the need to cut down more trees to provide more land for agriculture is greatly reduced. This results in less disturbance and damage to the biodiversity. Another measure is practicing sustainable use of forest resources. This is to ensure a balance between continuous harvesting of forest products and making sure that the forest remains productive and continuous to support a diversity of flora and fauna. Restoration programmes can be carried out to restore damaged habitats so that natural resources and wildlife are preserved. Another method is to create forest reserve to prevent the destruction of existing forests and to ensure that the diverse plant and animal species do not face extinction but continue to live in their natural habitats. These measures ensure the stability and survival of the species.

15.   (a) The following statements describe the human lymphatic system and blood circulatory system.


The fluid that leaks continuously from the blood plasma into the interstitial space will re-enter the blood circulatory system.

The lymphatic system also functions in transporting digested food products.





Explain the above statements to justify that lymphatic system acts as a complementary system to the blood circulatory system.

Blood that enters the arteriole end of capillary is under high pressure. The high pressure causes fluid to leak out continuously from the blood plasma into the interstitial space. Most of this fluid will re-enter the blood circulatory system. However, the remaining fluid that still remains in the interstitial fluid is collected by the lymphatic system. Once inside the lymph capillaries, the fluid is known as the lymph. The lymph re-enter the blood circulatory system through the thoracic duct which empties its lymph into the left subclavian vein and the right lymphatic duct which empties its lymph into the right subclavian vein. Lacteals, which are found in the villi, are the lymph capillaries which contain droplets of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Lacteals are joined to larger lymphatic vessels which eventually pass into the thoracic duct and into the left subclavian vein. Thus, the lymphatic system serves as a complementary system to the blood circulatory system because it returns interstitial fluid which contains water, nutrients and other molecules which continuously leak out of blood capillaries back into the blood circulatory system. 

(b)   Evaluate the statements based on the physical characteristic of the organisms with regards to the following processes:



Multicellular organisms such as humans need a specific transport system.

Unicellular organisms such as Amoeba sp. Do not need a transport system.



Multicellular organisms like humans are larger in size and have a smaller total surface area/volume ratio. Diffusion of substances from the surroundings into the cells is slow. Therefore, they need a specific transport system because their cells are not in direct contact with the surrounding environment. On the other hand, unicellular organisms such as Amoeba sp. Are smaller in size (only one cell) and have a large total surface area/volume ratio. Exchange of substances between the organisms and the surroundings can occur easily through diffusion. Therefore, they do not need a specific transport system or face any problem in obtaining their cellular requirements because their body cells are in direct contact with the surrounding environment.

(i)     Respiration

Multicellular organisms, such as humans, need a respiratory organ or lungs for the exchange of respiratory gases. Unicellular organisms do not need a specific organ for the exchange of respiratory gases because this process occurs through the plasma membrane by diffusion.

(ii)    Nutrition

Multicellular organisms, such as humans need a digestive system for the digestion of food substances and absorption of nutrients. Unicellular organisms do not need a digestive system because they can engulf food particles through phagocytosis. The food particles are then digested by

Lysozyme and the nutrients are absorbed.

(iii)       Excretion

Multicellular organisms need an excretory system because waste materials, such as carbon dioxide, are eliminated by diffusion through the plasma membrane. Amoeba sp. has contractile vacuoles which will contract to expel excess water and waste materials.

16.   Diagram below shows an experiment on animal cloning using two different species of frogs.

  Species X                                                                             Species Y


  Unfertilized egg cell                                                        mature intestinal cell


Nucleus in the egg cell is destroyed by using ultraviolet rays


  Enucleated egg cell                                                         Nucleus of intestinal


                                                      Enucleated egg cell fuses with the

                                                       Nucleus of the ultraviolet rays


                                                                Adult frog

(a)    Based on the principle shown in diagram above and an example of an animal, explain how animal cloning is carried out.

Cloning of animals such as sheep is carried out in the same way as the cloning of frogs shown in the diagram. Like the cloning of frog where the somatic cells come from the mature intestinal cell (species Y), the somatic cells of a sheep (Y) are removed from the udder and grown in a low medium culture. The starved cells stop dividing and enter a non-dividing phase. An unfertilized egg cell is taken from another sheep (X). Its nucleus is sucked out, leaving the cytoplasm and organelles without the chromosomes. This step is similar to taking an enucleated egg cell from the frog (species X). Then an electric pulse stimulates the fusion of the somatic cell and the egg cell with its nucleus removed. The cell the divides to form an embryo, which is implanted into a surrogate mother (the same breed of sheep as the egg cell donor sheep, that is, sheep X). The sheep is a clone of the somatic cell donor parent (sheep Y).

(b)   Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of the cloning technique to mankind.

Advantage of cloning:

Cloning allows biotechnologists to produce multiple copies of useful genes or clones. For example, the bacterium E. coli has been genetically manipulated to produce bovine growth hormone. These bacteria can produce a large amount of the hormone which is then injected into cows to increase the quality and quantity of their milk. Clones can be produced in a shorter period of time and in large numbers. In medicine, for example, the E. coli strain can be cloned efficiently to produce insulin. Transgenic crops such as wheat and soya bean which are resistant to herbicides, pest and diseases have been engineered to give high quality yields. For examples, genes from viruses are transferred to tomato plants to create new varieties that are resistant to the viruses. These plants can then be cloned using the tissue culture technique to produce thousands of plantlets (clones) with similar resistance to the viruses. Cloning by the tissue culture technique is a form of vegetative reproduction which does not need pollinating agents. Therefore, propagation can take place at any time. Crops that are planted using seeds that a longer time to grow and bear fruits. Cloned plants can produce flowers and fruits in a shorter period of time. Besides, the clones reach the maturity stage faster, thus reducing the time and effort needed for proper supervision at the initial stage.

Disadvantages of cloning:

The long-term side effects of using genetically modified clones of viruses and bacteria in various fields such as medicine and industries are not fully known. The long-term effects and safety aspects of releasing bacterial clones to the environment to solve problems related to the environment such as pollution have not been established. These clones may mutate and become dangerous to mankind. Clones do not show any genetic variations. For example, certain plant clones are better adapted to the current environment. However in future, if there is any drastic change in the environment, the entire population of clones may be wiped out completely as they are unable to adapt to the change.  All clones have similar resistance levels towards certain diseases. If a new disease of pet arises, all the clones may be eliminated, as they do not have the resistance to fight the new disease or pest. Newly created clones can prevent the process of natural selection in evolution and eventually no new species can exist naturally. The new clones may experience natural mutation which endangers mankind as well as the environment.

Comments (0) | 11-Nov-09 7:11:23 PM
  1. Which of the following is the main cause of environmental pollution of synthetic polymers?

  1. They are not easily biodegradable.

  2. They produce poisonous substances when broken down by bacteria.

  3. Combustion of synthetic polymers depletes the ozone layer

  4. Combustion of synthetic polymers causes acid rain.

  1. Which of the following substances is not a type of ceramic?

  1. Brick

  2. Cement

  3. Porcelain

  4. Glass

  1. Which of the following is true about the change in property of the elements when descending Group 1?

  1. Atomic size decreases

  2. Electro positivity increases

  3. Density decreases

  4. Melting point increases

  1. Vanadium (V) oxide is used as a catalyst in the production of sulphuric acid in the Contact process. What is the function of vanadium (V) oxide?

  1. To increase the yield of sulphur trioxide

  2. To increase the yield of sulphuric acid

  3. To lower the activation energy of the reaction

  4. To lower the temperature required in the process.

  1. Which of the following will decompose when an electric current is passed through it?

  1. Solid lead(II) bromide

  2. Molten lead(II) chloride

  3. Aqueous ethanol

  4. Copper metal

  1. Compound X has a pH value of 12. Which of the following is true of compound X?

  1. Compound X reacts with metal to produce hydrogen gas.

  2. Compound X reacts with metal carbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas.

  3. Compound X reacts with an alkali to form water and salt.

  4. Compound X reacts with sodium hydroxide solution with heating to produce ammonia gas.

  1. Element X forms an ionic oxide of formula XO2 which is a solid at room temperature and pressure. Which of the following is true about element X and its oxide?

  1. X is in Group 14 of the Periodic Table of elements.

  2. X shares electrons with oxygen in XO2.

  3. The molten form of XO2 is an electrolyte.

  4. XO2 dissolves in water to form an acidic solution.

  1. Which of the following best explains why the flame of propane is less sooty than that of propane?

  1. Combustion of propane produces more heat.

  2. Relative molecular mass of propane is larger.

  3. Propane has carbon-carbon double bond in its structure.

  4. Percentage by weight of carbon in propane is higher.

  1. Which of the following food additives is added to processed meat to increase its shelf-life?

  1. Sodium acetate.

  2. Sodium nitrite.

  3. Sodium benzoate.

  4. Monosodium glutamate.

  1. Insoluble salts can be produced by double decomposition. Which of the following pairs of solutions will produce an insoluble salt?

  1. Magnesium nitrate and sodium sulphate

  2. Copper(II)suplphate and lead(II)nitrate

  3. Sodium carbonate and sulphuric acid.

  4. Lead (II) nitrate and silver nitrate.

  1. When chemical X is heated, a brown gas is produced leaving a residue which is yellow when hot and white when cooled. Which of the following may be chemical X?

  1. Lead(II) nitrate

  2. Zinc nitrate

  3. Sodium nitrate

  4. Zinc carbonate

  1. Which of the following statements explains the increase in the rate of a reaction when the temperature is increased?

  1. The activation energy is increased.

  2. The kinetic energy of the product molecules is increased.

  3. The number of reactant molecules per unit volume is increased.

  4. The reactant molecules collide more frequently.

  1. Which of the following statements is true of a covalent compound with the molecular formula of XY2?

  1. X is from Group 2 and Y is from Group 17 of the Periodic Table elements.

  2. X is from Group 17 and Y is from Group 16 of the Periodic Table elements.

  3. One atom of X shares two pairs of electrons with two atoms of Y.

  4. One atom of X donates two electrons to two atoms of Y.

  1. The relative atomic mass of element P and element Q are both 24. This means that

  1. P and Q isotopes.

  2. Every atom of element P and element Q has 12 neutrons and 12 protons.

  3. Atom P and atom Q have the same electron arrangement.

  4. 24g of element P and 24g of element Q have the same number of atoms.

  1. Which of the following can affect the types of products formed in the electrolysis of aqueous copper (II) nitrate solution?

  1. Presence of nitric acid as an impurity.

  2. Concentration of the solution used.

  3. Voltage of batteries used in electrolysis.

  4. Carbon electrodes of copper electrodes.

  1. The relative atomic mass of carbon and magnesium are 12 and 24 respectively. Which of the following is true?

  1. 12g of carbon have the same number of atoms as 24g of magnesium.

  2. 12 atoms of carbon have the same mass as 24 atoms of magnesium.

  3. 1 mol of carbon is twice the mass of 1 mol of magnesium.

  4. One atom of carbon is the mass of two atoms of magnesium.

  1. Which of the following is true of Group 17 elements when descending the group?

  1. The density of the elements decreases.

  2. The reactivity of the elements increases.

  3. The number of valence electrons increases.

  4. The electro negativity of the elements decreases.

  1. How many isomers does a compound with the molecular formula of C5H12 have?

  1. 2

  2. 3

  3. 4

  4. 5

  1. Sodium chloride salt is added to oil and sodium hydroxide in the making of soap through saponification. What is the purpose of adding sodium chloride?

  1. To improve the quality of the soap produced.

  2. To decrease the solubility of the soap produced.

  3. As a catalyst to speed up saponification.

  4. To reduce the oiliness of the soap produced.

  1. Which of the following is true of the redox reaction that takes place in a voltaic cell?

  1. Oxidation reaction occurs at the cathode.

  2. Electrons flow from the cathode to the anode through the external wire.

  3. The metal which is at a higher position in the electrochemical series acts as the reducing agent.

  4. The metal which is at a higher position in the electrochemical series becomes the positive terminal.

  1. Which of the following is the advantage of detergent as compared to soap?

  1. Detergent is more soluble in soft water than soap.

  2. Detergent is more biodegradable than soap.

  3. Detergent can be tailor-made for specific cleaning purposes.

  4. Detergent causes less pollution in water.

  1. Sodium forms a while oxide when it is burnt in air. What is the mass of sodium oxide produced from the combustion of 4.6g of sodium?

[Relative atomic mass: Na, 23; O, 16]

  1. 3.9g

  2. 6.2g

  3. 7.8g

  4. 12.4g

  1. Which of the following is used as a traditional preservative in food?

  1. Sodium carbonate.

  2. Sodium hydrogen carbonate.

  3. Sodium Bromide.

  4. Sodium Chloride.

  1. Which of the following products does not involve the use of sulphuric acid?

  1. Soap.

  2. Detergent.

  3. Fertilizer.

  4. White pigment in paint.

  1. Which of the following processes involves a decrease in kinetic energy?

  1. Liquid gas

  2. Solid gas

  3. Gas solid

  4. Solid liquid

  1. Which of the following shows an increase when descending all the groups in the Periodic Table of elements?

  1. Atomic size.

  2. Electro negativity.

  3. Reactivity

  4. Melting point.

  1. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is a synthetic polymer used widely to replace iron in the making of water pipes. Which of the following is the monomer of PVC?

  1. Ethene

  2. Chloroethane

  3. Chloroethene

  4. Chloropropene

  1. Which of the following oxide is added to produce heat resistant glass?

  1. Sodium oxide

  2. Calcium oxide

  3. Boron oxide

  4. Lead (II) oxide

  1. Streptomycin is used to treat tuberculosis. Which class of medicine doest streptomycin belongs to?

  1. Analgesic

  2. Antibiotic

  3. Hormone

  4. Psychotherapeutic

  1. The atomic radius of the elements in Group 17 increase down the group because

  1. The number of protons in the nucleus increases.

  2. The number of neutrons in the nucleus increases.

  3. The number of electrons in the atom increases.

  4. The number of electron-field shells increases.

  1. Which of the following solutions produces hydrogen gas at the cathode during electrolysis?

  1. Silver nitrate

  2. Sodium hydroxide

  3. Copper(II) nitrate

  4. Copper(II) chloride

  1. The production of sulphuric acid is shown below.

SulphurSulphur dioxideSulphur trioxideXSulphuric acid

What is added to Sulphuric trioxide to produce X in the flowchart?

  1. Oxygen

  2. Oleum

  3. Water

  4. Concentrated sulphuric acid

  1. The proton numbers of element X and element Y are 15 and 17 respectively. Which of the following statements is true of the compound formed between element X and element Y?

  1. Its formula is X3Y

  2. It is a volatile compound.

  3. It is soluble in both water and organic solvents.

  4. It is an electrolyte in the molten state.

  1. The salt lead(II) sulphate can be prepared by the reaction between sulphuric acid and

  1. Lead metal

  2. Lead (II) oxide

  3. Lead(II) carbonate

  4. Lead(II) nitrate

  1. Which of the following is true when aqueous copper (II) chloride solution is electrolyzed using copper electrodes?

  1. Chlorine gas is evolved.

  2. Hydrogen gas is evolved.

  3. The mass of anode reduces.

  4. The blue intensity of the solution decreases.

  1. The preparation of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen is represented by the equation.

3H2 + N2 2NH3

What is the purpose of using iron powder in the production of ammonia in the Haber process?

  1. To increase kinetic energy of the hydrogen and oxygen molecules.

  2. To reduce the activation energy of the reaction.

  3. To increase the yield of ammonia.

  4. To lower the temperature required for the process.

  1. A few drops of acidified potassium permanganate solution are added to 5cm3 of potassium iodide solution in a test tube and the purple color of permanganate decolorized. Which of the following compounds will produce the same color change if it were to replace the potassium iodide solution?

  1. Potassium dichromate(VI)

  2. Iron(III) sulphate

  3. Iron(II) sulphate

  4. Bromine water

  1. 1.72g of an oxide of metal M contains 0.92g of metal M. What is the empirical formula of this oxide of M?

[Relative atomic mass: O, 16; M, 46]

  1. MO

  2. MO2

  3. M2O

  4. M2O5

  1. Which of the following compounds can decolorize bromine water?

  1. CH2 = CHCH3


  3. CH2CH2OH

  4. CH3CH2CH3

  1. Which of the following pairs of compounds is required to produce the ester, ethylethanoate?

  1. C2H5COOH and C2H5OH

  2. C2H5COOH and CH3OH

  3. CH3COOH and C2H5OH

  4. CH3COOH and CH3OH

  1. In which of the following compounds does sulphur has the same oxidation state as in ammonium sulphate?

  1. SO2

  2. SO3

  3. H2SO3

  4. (NH4)2S

  1. The reaction between potassium hydroxide and sulphuric acid is represented by the equation.

H2SO4 + 2KOH 2H2O + K2SO4

What is the volume of 0.25 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid that is required to react completely with 20 cm3 of 1.5 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide?

  1. 10 cm3

  2. 40 cm3

  3. 60 cm3

  4. 120 cm3

  1. Which of the following will produce a reaction the results in the formation of a black powder?

  1. A mixture of copper and magnesium oxide heated strongly.

  2. A stream of hydrogen gas passing over heated copper (II) oxide.

  3. A stream of ammonia gas passing over heated copper (II) oxide.

  4. Burning magnesium placed in carbon dioxide gas in a gas jar.

  1. Solution X contains magnesium sulphate. Which of the following pairs of tests and observation is true of solution X?



    1. Sodium hydroxide solution is added to solution X until excess.

    A white precipitate soluble in excess sodium hydroxide is formed.

    1. Aqueous ammonia is added to solution X until in excess.

    A white precipitate soluble in excess ammonia is formed.

    1. Barium nitrate solution is added to solution X.

    A white precipitate is formed.

    1. Silver nitrate solution is added to solution X.

    A white precipitate is formed.

  2. Which of the following is true about the relationship between an alkali and its pH value?

  1. pH is a measure of the concentration of the hydroxide ions in an alkali.

  2. The higher the degree of dissociation of an alkali, the higher the pH value.

  3. The pH of an alkali increases with the addition of water.

  4. The pH of a weak alkali is higher than that of a strong alkali of the same concentration.

  1. Which of the following pairs of chemicals is most suitable to be used to prepare calcium sulphate?

  1. Calcium nitrate and sulphuric acid

  2. Calcium carbonate and sulphuric acid

  3. Calcium oxide and sulphuric acid

  4. Calcium metal and sulphuric acid

  1. What is the mass of calcium carbonate that is required to react completely with 100 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 nitric acid?

[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12; N, 14; O, 16; Ca, 40]

  1. 0.05g

  2. 2.5g

  3. 5.0g

  4. 10.0g

  1. Which of the following is an analgesic?

  1. Codeine

  2. Caffeine

  3. Streptomycin

  4. Amphetamine

  1. Solid lead(II) chloride does not conduct electricity because

  1. It is a covalent compound.

  2. It does not contain ions.

  3. The electrons are held by strong ionic bonds.

  4. The ions are held by strong electrostatic force of attraction.

  1. Which of the following is present in both glass and ceramic?

  1. Sodium oxide

  2. Calcium oxide

  3. Silicon dioxide

  4. Aluminium oxide

  1. Which of the following compounds is an ester?

  1. Palm oil.

  2. Sodium ethanoate.

  3. Glycerol.

  4. Ethan-1, 2-diol.

  1. Which of the following is an endothermic reaction?

  1. Dissolving sodium hydroxide in water.

  2. Diluting concentrated hydrochloric acid with water.

  3. Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water.

  4. Dissolving anhydrous copper sulphate in water.

  1. Which of the following is the glass produced when sliver chloride is added to glass?

  1. Lead glass.

  2. Borosilicate glass.

  3. Photochromic glass.

  4. Soda lime glass.

  1. Which of the following reactions can be used to differentiate between propane and propene?

  1. Combustion

  2. Hydration

  3. Addition with bromine water

  4. Addition with chlorine water

  1. Which of the following is true about the rate of a reaction?

  1. The rate increases with time.

  2. The rate depends on the concentration of the product formed.

  3. The rate depends on the concentration of the reactants.

  4. The rate is inversely proportional to the temperature.

  1. Which of the following is true about all the transition elements?

  1. Act as superconductors

  2. Form acidic oxides

  3. Have low melting and boiling points

  4. Exhibits different oxidation states

  1. Metal M is placed below metal N in the electrochemical series. Which of the statements is true?

  1. Metal M can displace metal N from an aqueous solution of N ions.

  2. Metal M is a stronger reducing agent than metal N.

  3. Metal M can reduce N ions to metal N.

  4. Metal N can reduce M ions to metal M.

  1. Substance X is made from glass and plastic. It has the following properties:

-Hard but not brittle

-Fire resistant

From the information above, substance X may be

  1. Optical fibre

  2. Fiberglass

  3. Reinforced concrete

  4. Photochromic glass

  1. Element Z is below potassium in Group 1 of the Periodic Table of elements. Which of the following is true about element Z and its compound?

  1. Z reacts with oxygen to form an acidic oxide.

  2. Z forms a carbonate which is soluble in water.

  3. Z carbonate will release carbon dioxide upon heating.

  4. Z nitrate will release nitrogen dioxide upon heating.

  1. The table shows the proton numbers of elements W, X, Y, and Z


Proton number









Which of the following pairs will form a compound that has low melting and boiling points?

  1. X and W

  2. Y and Z

  3. W and Y

  4. X and Y

  1. The table shows the proton numbers of four elements represented by the letters W, X, Y and Z.






Proton number





Which of the following is the correct arrangement of the atoms in order in increasing atomic size?

  1. W,X,Y,Z

  2. Z,X,Y,W

  3. Y,X,W,Z

  4. Z,Y,X,W

  1. Which of the following is true of Group 18 elements when descending the group?

  1. The density of the elements increases.

  2. The atomic radius decreases.

  3. The number of valence electrons increases.

  4. The boiling point of the elements decreases.

  1. C4H10O is the molecular formula of compound X and Y. Dehydration of compound X produces but 1-ene but hydration of compound Y produces but 2-ene. Which of the following is true of compounds X and Y?

  1. They have the same functional group.

  2. They have the same physical properties.

  3. They have different relative molecular mass.

  4. They produce different amounts of heat of combustion upon complete combustion.

  1. Liquid Q reacts with calcium carbonate to produce a gas which turns limewater milky. The formula of liquid Q may be

  1. C5H10

  2. C2H5OH

  3. CH3COOH

  4. CH3COOC2H5

  1. Which of the following is true of a solution with a pH value of 12?

  1. Produces hydrogen gas when zinc powder is added to it.

  2. Produces carbon dioxide gas when limestone is added to it.

  3. Produces ammonia gas when it is heated with ammonium nitrate.

  4. Forms a blue solution when it is heated with copper (II) oxide.

  1. Nitric acid is different from sulphuric acid in the reaction towards

  1. Aqueous ammonia

  2. Copper (II) oxide

  3. Barium sulphate solution

  4. Calcium carbonate

  1. Which if the following chemical equations represents a redox reaction?

  1. Na2S2O3 + 2HCI 2NaCI + S + SO2 + H2O

  2. CuCO3 + H2SO4 CuSO4 + CO2 + H2O

  3. Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3

  4. MgO + 2HCI MgCI2 + H2O

  1. Which of the following is true of sodium nitrate?

  1. Decomposes to sodium oxide when heated strongly.

  2. Produces oxygen gas when heated strongly.

  3. Produces nitrogen dioxide gas when heated strongly.

  4. Produces a white precipitate when added with barium chloride solution.

  1. Hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium ribbon to produce hydrogen gas. Which of the following is true when the temperature of hydrochloric acid is increased?

  1. Time taken for magnesium ribbon to dissolve is increased.

  2. Volume of hydrogen gas produced is increased.

  3. Time taken to produce a certain volume of hydrogen gas is shortened.

  4. Mass of magnesium ribbon dissolved is increased.

  1. The table shows the observation of two tests conducted on an aqueous solution X.



Aqueous sodium hydroxide is added until in excess.

White precipitate insoluble in excess sodium hydroxide is formed.

Aqueous ammonia is added until in excess.

No noticeable change occurs.

Which of the following cations may be present solution X?

  1. Zn2+

  2. Al3+

  3. Ca2+

  4. Mg2+

  1. When Iron (II) sulphate is heated, a pungent gas Y which is very soluble in water and change blue litmus paper to red is evolved. Which of the following may be suitable test to confirm the identity of gas Y?

  1. Limewater

  2. Aqueous ammonia

  3. Sodium hydroxide solution

  4. Acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution

  1. Which of the following formulae is the correct formula of the compound formed by the elements in the table below?






Electron arrangement




  1. R2Q

  2. TQ3

  3. P2R4

  4. P4T3

  1. The table shows the results of four voltaic cells made up of different pairs of metals

Metal pair

Voltage (V)

Negative terminal

V – Y



X – Y



X – Z



W – Z



Which of the following pairs of metal will produce of highest voltage when used as electrode in a simple cell?

  1. Y-Z

  2. W-X

  3. V-Z

  4. W-Y

  1. The table shows the experimental results when metals P, Q and R were immersed in the salt





Solution of P nitrate


P is deposited

P is deposited

Solution of Q nitrate

No change


No change

Which of the following arrangements of metals is in a descending order in the electrochemical series?
  1. P, Q, R

  2. Q, P, R

  3. R, P, Q

  4. Q, R, P

  1. The empirical formula of a compound formed from elements X and Y is X2Y3. It is found that 5.5g of a sample of the compound has 2.4g of element Y. Calculate the relative atomic mass of X if the relative atomic mass of Y is 16.

  1. 27

  2. 31

  3. 32

  4. 39

  1. Which of the following contains the same number of atoms as 0.71g chlorine gas?

[Relative atomic mass: He, 4; C, 12; N, 14; O, 16; Cl, 35.5]

  1. 0.28g nitrogen gas

  2. 0.44g carbon dioxide gas

  3. 0.16g oxygen gas

  4. 0.04g helium gas

  1. What is the concentration of the solution produced when 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is added to 30 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid?

  1. 0.4 mol dm-3

  2. 0.75 mol dm-3

  3. 0.8 mol dm-3

  4. 1.5 mol dm-3

  1. When 25 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution was added to 25 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 nitric solution, the temperature increased by T0C. What is the increase in temperature if 50cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution is added to 50cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid?

  1. ½ T

  2. T

  3. 2T

  4. 4T

  1. Which of the following is true when 20cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide is added to 50cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid?

  1. A neutral solution is formed.

  2. 0.01 mol of sodium sulphate is produced.

  3. The solution produces hydrogen gas when zinc is added.

  4. The solution changes methyl orange indicator from yellow to orange.

  1. Which of the following is an example of an electrolyte?

  1. Sodium chloride

  2. Naphthalene

  3. Phenolphthalein

  4. Copper

  1. Which of the following is a strong acid?

  1. Ethanoic acid

  2. Citric acid

  3. Formic acid

  4. Sulphuric acid

  1. The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing

  1. Nucleon number

  2. Neutron number

  3. Number of electrons

  4. Relative atomic mass

  1. Which of the following are the main components of bronze?

  1. Copper and tin

  2. Iron and copper

  3. Tin and zinc

  4. Zinc and copper

  1. Which of the following is an alkali?

  1. Sulphur dioxide

  2. Sodium hydroxide

  3. Sodium chloride

  4. Magnesium iodide

  1. Which of the following is true about an endothermic reaction?

  1. The products are hotter than the reactants.

  2. Heat is released.

  3. More heat is needed to break the bonds between the atoms.

  4. More heat is needed to form the bonds between the atoms.

  1. Which of the following is not true about ceramic?

  1. Brittle

  2. Hard

  3. Thermal insulator

  4. Low melting point

  1. Which of the following is true about an ester?

  1. Soluble in water

  2. Soluble in alcohol

  3. Has a pungent smell

  4. Has a fruity smell

  1. Which of the following reactants may be involved in a redox reaction?

  1. Sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide

  2. Silver nitrate and sodium chloride

  3. Silver nitrate and zinc

  4. Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide

  1. Which of the following is true about a covalent compound?

  1. High melting point

  2. Formed by the sharing of electrons

  3. Is soluble in water

  4. Conducts electricity in molten state

  1. An element Q has the electron arrangement of 2.8.2

What is element Q?

  1. Potassium

  2. Sodium

  3. Magnesium

  4. Calcium

  1. Which of the following substances is amphoteric?

  1. Sodium Oxide

  2. Aluminium oxide

  3. Carbon dioxide

  4. Calcium oxide

  1. Barbiturate is a medicine used to treat

  1. Headache

  2. Diarrhea

  3. Diabetes

  4. Psychiatric problems

  1. Which of the following elements has the smallest atom?

  1. Fluorine

  2. Chlorine

  3. Iodine

  4. Bromine

  1. Which of the following is the most reactive element?

  1. Lithium

  2. Magnesium

  3. Potassium

  4. Calcium

  1. What is the oxidation number of manganese in manganese dioxide?

  1. +2

  2. +4

  3. +6

  4. +7

  1. What is the mass of 1 mol of oxygen gas?

[Relative atomic mass: O, 16]

  1. 8g

  2. 16g

  3. 32g

  4. 64g

  1. Which of the following compounds undergoes addition reaction?

  1. Butanoic acid

  2. Butanol

  3. Butene

  4. Butane

  1. The following are the electron arrangements of the atoms of element P and element Q.

P: 2.4

Q: 2.6

What is the chemical formula of a compound that is formed from P and Q?

  1. PQ

  2. PQ2

  3. P2Q

  4. P2Q2

  1. Which of the following acids can neutralize 20.0 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide at the same volume and concentration as the alkali?

  1. Hydrochloric acid

  2. Sulphuric acid

  3. Ethanoic acid

  4. Formic acid

  1. The boiling point of the halogen decreases down the group due to the

  1. Strength of the intermolecular forces.

  2. Strength of the covalent bond between the atoms.

  3. Density of the elements.

  4. Electro positivity of the elements.

  1. Which of the following is pentene?

  1. C5H12

  2. CH3C2H4C2H5

  3. CH2CHC3H7

  4. CH2CHC2H5

  1. Butane and butane can be distinguished by

  1. Their inflammability

  2. Their pH values

  3. Bromine water

  4. Iodine gas

  1. The reaction between 50 cm3 of 0.4 mol dm-3 sulphuric acids and sodium hydroxide produced water and salt. What is the volume and concentration of sodium hydroxide needed for this reaction?

  1. 50 cm3 and 0.4 mol dm-3

  2. 25 cm3 and 0.4 mol dm-3

  3. 100 cm3 and 0.4 mol dm-3

  4. 50 cm3 and 0.6 mol dm-3

  1. Excess zinc reacts with 50 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 copper (II) sulphate. The temperature increased by 4.50C. What is the heat of displacement for this reaction?

[Specific heat capacity = 4.2 J g-1 0C-1]

  1. 1.89 kJ mol-1

  2. 18.9 kJ mol-1

  3. 189 kJ mol-1

  4. 1890 kJ mol-1

  1. 103.5g of element X reacts with 10.7g of oxygen to form a compound with the formula X3O4. What is the relative atomic mass of X?

[Relative atomic mass of O, 16]

  1. 116

  2. 154

  3. 189

  4. 206

  1. The table shows the electron arrangement of elements V, W, X, Y and Z.

V: 2.8.4

W: 2.8

X: 2.8.2

Y: 2.8.6


Which combination of the elements will form a substance that can conduct electricity in aqueous state?

  1. W and X

  2. V and W

  3. X and Z

  4. Y and Z

  1. Which of the following is true about an isoprene?

  1. It is an alkene.

  2. Produces CO2 and water when heated.

  3. The monomer of natural rubber.

  4. Reacts with hydrogen to produce 2-methylpentane.

  1. Which of the following is true about the molecules of the substance used for washing clothes?

  1. It consists of hydrophobic part only.

  2. The ionic end is not attracted to water.

  3. It can be prepared by the hydrolysis of fatty acid.

  4. The hydrocarbon end dissolves in water.

  1. Which of the following can be used to relief pain?

  1. Penicillin.

  2. Streptomycin.

  3. Paracetamol.

  4. Barbiturate.

  1. What is the electron arrangement for an atom with proton number 15?

  1. 2.8.2

  2. 2.8.3

  3. 2.8.5

  4. 2.8.7

  1. Which of the following substances is an ionic compound?

  1. Hydrogen sulphide.

  2. Ammonia.

  3. Glucose.

  4. Potassium iodide

  1. How many electrons does one atom of carbon share with other elements?

  1. 2

  2. 4

  3. 6

  4. 8

  1. Which of the following atoms has the smallest diameter?

  1. Helium

  2. Oxygen

  3. Carbon

  4. Nitrogen

  1. Which of the following is true about an atom?

  1. Always move randomly

  2. Consists of three subatomic particles

  3. Exists in solid state only

  4. Forms molecules only when combined with other atoms

  1. When liquid iodine solidifies,

  1. Energy is released

  2. The molecules arrangement becomes less orderly

  3. The mass increases

  4. The temperature drops

  1. Which of the following is a member of Group 1 in the Periodic Table?

  1. Magnesium

  2. Calcium

  3. Potassium

  4. Aluminium

  1. What is the electron arrangement of an atom of fluorine?

  1. 2.7

  2. 2.8.7

  3. 2.8

  4. 2.8.8

  1. Which scientist arranged the elements in the Periodic Table according to their relative atomic mass?

  1. Dobereiner

  2. Meyer

  3. Thompson

  4. Mendeleev

  1. Which of the following is not true about an electrolyte?

  1. Consists of ions

  2. Has a high boiling point

  3. Conducts electricity in molten state

  4. Does not conduct electricity in solid state

  1. The members of Group 18 in the Periodic Table

  1. Have 18 valence electrons

  2. Are colorless

  3. React with oxygen

  4. Have an octet electron arrangement

  1. What is the chemical property of aluminium oxide?

  1. Acidic

  2. Alkali

  3. Neutral

  4. Amphoteric

  1. An acid is a substance that

  1. Contains hydrogen

  2. Donates its hydrogen in a chemical reaction

  3. Produces hydrogen ions in the presence of water

  4. Reacts with an alkali

  1. Which of the following will produce the most number of hydrogen ions in 0.1 mol dm-3 of its solution?

  1. Hydrochloric acid

  2. Sulphuric acid

  3. Nitric acid

  4. Ethanoic acid

  1. Which substance has the lowest rate of expansion?

  1. Ceramic

  2. Cement

  3. Soda lime glass

  4. Borosilicate glass

  1. Which of the following solids will produce a yellow residue when cooled after being strongly heated?

  1. Lead (II) carbonate

  2. Zinc carbonate

  3. Magnesium carbonate

  4. Barium carbonate

  1. Which of the following is a saturated hydrocarbon?

  1. CH3CH2CH3

  2. C(CH3)2CH2

  3. CH2CH2

  4. CH2CHCH3

  1. Which of the following will not produce a chemical reaction?

  1. Chlorine + sodium iodide

  2. Bromine + potassium chloride

  3. Chlorine + potassium iodide

  4. Bromine + potassium iodide

  1. CH3CH(CH3)CH(CH3)CH2CH3

What is the IUPAC name of the substance above?

  1. 2, 3-dimethylpentane

  2. 3, 2-dimethylethane

  3. 2-methyl-3-ethylethane

  4. 2-methyl-2-methylpentane

  1. Detergent is most effective to be used in hard water compared to soap because

  1. Hard water contains metals

  2. Soap is insoluble in hard water

  3. Soap will form scum in hard water

  4. Detergent can float on hard water

  1. Which element is used in lamp bulbs to make it colorful?

  1. Copper

  2. Sodium

  3. Helium

  4. Neon

  1. Both monomer and polymer of a substance have the same

  1. Melting point

  2. Elasticity

  3. Empirical formula

  4. Structural formula

  1. 20 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid neutralizes 50 cm3 of sodium hydroxide. What is the concentration of the alkali used?

  1. 0.12 mol dm-3

  2. 0.16 mol dm-3

  3. 0.20 mol dm-3

  4. 0.24 mol dm-3

  1. An acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution reacted with iron (II) sulphate solution. What is the oxidation number of manganese before and after the reaction?

  1. +7 to +3

  2. +7 to +2

  3. -7 to -3

  4. -7 to -2

  1. Insulin is an example of a modern medicine. It is

  1. An analgesic

  2. An antiseptic

  3. A painkiller

  4. A hormone

  1. Most of the synthetic polymers are non-biogradable. Which of the following is a synthetic polymer?

  1. Silk

  2. Cellulose

  3. Polyisoprena

  4. Polyvinylchloride

  1. What is the volume of copper (II) sulphate of 1.0 mol dm-3 required to react completely with 1.08g of aluminium?

[Relative atomic mass of AI, 27]

  1. 20 cm3

  2. 40 cm3

  3. 60 cm3

  4. 80 cm3

  1. 5.6g of element Q reacts with 8.0g of oxygen to form a compound with an empirical formula Q2O3. What is the relative atomic mass of Q?

  1. 8.4

  2. 16.8

  3. 25.2

  4. 33.6

  1. Which compound would react with propanol to form a substance with a fruity smell?

  1. C3H6

  2. C4H10

  3. CH3COOCH3


  1. Element D combines with hydrogen atoms to form a molecule with the formula DH3. What is the possible nucleon number of D?

  1. 6

  2. 12

  3. 14

  4. 24

  1. Hydrocarbon T burnt in air to form 17.6g of carbon dioxide and 9.0g of water. What is the molecular formula of T?

[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12; O, 16]

  1. C3H8

  2. C4H10

  3. C5H10

  4. C6H6

  1. Which of the following statements is true about a catalyst?

  1. Increase the yield of a chemical reaction

  2. Increase during a reaction

  3. Lower the rate of reaction

  4. Chemically unchanged at the end of a reaction

  1. Which of the following sequences shows a decrease in the sizes of the atoms of the elements?

  1. Hydrogen, helium, chlorine

  2. Chlorine, iodine, helium

  3. Chlorine, helium, hydrogen

  4. Iodine, hydrogen, oxygen

  1. Which of the following pairs will form a covalent compound?

  1. Lithium and chlorine

  2. Hydrogen and chlorine

  3. Sodium and iodine

  4. Calcium and iodine

  1. Which substance undergoes sublimation when heated?

  1. Chlorine

  2. Iodine

  3. Fluorine

  4. Bromine

  1. Which substance undergoes addition reaction?

  1. Butanoic acid

  2. Pentanol

  3. Butene

  4. Ethyl methanoate

  1. The reaction between an alcohol and carboxylic acid will produce an

  1. Alkene

  2. Alkane

  3. Ester

  4. Alkali

  1. Which alloy can be used to make the body of an airplane?

  1. Stainless steel

  2. Duralumin

  3. Bronze

  4. Titanium

  1. Which of the following will decrease the rate of reaction of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?

  1. High temperature

  2. Addition of a catalyst

  3. Greater volume of the substance

  4. Low temperature

  1. An effective collision is a collision

  1. With high energy.

  2. Which results in a chemical reaction.

  3. Between two reactants.

  4. That requires a catalyst.

  1. Which of the following is the same in 200 cm3 of helium gas and 200 cm3 of hydrogen gas at standard temperature and pressure?

  1. The number of molecules

  2. The mass

  3. Number of protons

  4. Energy

  1. Which of the following will undergo chemical reaction with glacial ethanoic acid?

  1. Calcium solid

  2. Marble

  3. Sodium hydroxide solution

  4. Carbon powder

  1. Which information is not needed to determine the heat of neutralization between a dilute acid and a dilute alkali?

  1. Specific heat capacity of the solutions

  2. Total volume of the mixture

  3. Initial and final temperatures of the solutions

  4. Temperature of the container used

  1. Most traditional medicine can be obtained from plants. Which of the following is a traditional medicine?

  1. Streptomycin

  2. Ascorbic acid

  3. Quinine

  4. Insulin

  1. 50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid reacted completely to neutralize 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium carbonate. What is the volume of sodium carbonate used?

  1. 50.0 cm3

  2. 62.5 cm3

  3. 125.5 cm3

  4. 250 cm3

Comments (0) | 04-Nov-09 10:35:35 AM


1. Which process occurs through osmosis?

A. The formation of glomerular filtrate.

B.The formation of interstitial fluid.

C. The absorption of water in the large intestine.

D. The transport of water in the xylem up a plant stem.

2. Starch is similar to glycogen in that both molecules

A. are soluable in water.

B. are polymers of glucose.

C. contain monomers of glucose and galaktose.

D. are important structural components of plant cells.

3. *Build pigments in the retina

*Maintains healthy skin

*Delays the ageing process

The statements describe the function of

A. Vitamin A

B. Vitamin B

C. Vitamin C

D. Vitamin D

4. Which statement about cigarette smoking is correct?

A. Nicotine causes lung cancer.

B. Nicotine stains the lungs brown.

C. Tar makes a smoker become addicted to smoking.

D. Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen content in blood.

5. Carbon dioxide is primary carried in the blood humans

A. bound to haemoglobin .

B. bound to the red blood cells.

C. as bicarbonate ions in the blood plasma.

D. as dissolved carbon dioxide in the blood plasma.

6. Which characteristic of a ligamen is true?

A. Links muscle and bone together.

B. Joins bones to form a joint.

C. Provides protection to muscles.

D. Is a tough and inelestic tissue.

7. Which statement of pancreas is incorrect?

A. The pancreas is also an endocrine gland.

B. The pancreatic juice secreted by the pancreas neutralise the acidic chyme from the stomach.

C. Pancreas juice contains enzymes for the digestion of carbohydrates and protein only.

D. The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which flows into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct.
8. The diagram shows the different parts of the human brain.

Which part responsible for the control of heartbeats?

A. P

B. Q

C. R

D. S

9. In the ABO blood group system, which antibodies are present in the blood plasma of a person belongingto blood group O?

A. Anti-A antibodies only

B. Anti-B antibodies only

C. Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies

D. Both anti-A and anti-B antibodies are not present

10. Which statement about genetically modified corn is correct?

A. It can produce a higher number seeds.

B. It has a higher resistance to pests.

C. It is cheaper than ordinary corn.

D. It can stay fresh for many years.

11. Protease can be used to

i. tenderise meat

ii. Separate the skin of fish

iii. Remove hairs from animal hides

iv. Remove starch stains from clothes

A. I and II only

B. II and III only

C. III and IV only

D. I, II, and III only

12. Chiew carried out and ecological study to estimate the number of jasmine flower plants on a piece of land measuring 100 m 2 .He placed five quadrats measuring 1 m 2 randomly on the land. The numbers of plants counted for the quadrats are 10, 22, 8, 4, and 12 respectively.What is the estimated number of jasmine flower plants on the land?

A. 1110

B. 1111

C. 1120

D. 1010

13. The diagram shows a cross section of a human ovary.

Which structure is responsible for secreting the hormone progesterone?

14. In Drosophila sp., the allele for long wings, A, is dominant while the allele for short wings, a, is recessive.30 heterozygous long-winged Drosophilia sp were mated with 30 short-winged Drosophilia sp. 210 of the offspring had long wings. How many short-winged offspring are likely to have been produced?

A. 70

B. 105

C. 210

D. 280
15. In rats, a chromosome which carries a recessive allele can result in death if it is present in a homozygous animal.The rats carrying the allele are mated. What proportion of their living offspring will carry the recessive allele?

A. 0.00

B. 0.50

C. 0.67

D. 0.75

16. Which organelle contains hydrolytic enzymes?

A. Ribosome

B. Mitochondrion

C. Lysosome

D. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

17. Which sequence correctly shows the involvement of organelle in protein synthesis?

A. mRNA, DNA, ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus

B. DNA, mRNA, ribosome, Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum

C. mRNA, DNA, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, ribosome

D. DNA, mRNA, ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus

18. Which of the following is not an organ?

A. Leaf

B. Liver

C. Fruit

D. Blood

19. Which is an example of simple diffusion in plants?

A. The absorption of mineral salts by root hairs.

B. The transport of organic substances in the phloem tissue

C. The excahnge of respiratory gases between the leaves and the atmosphere

D. The movement of water in the xylem vessels of plant stems.

20. What will happen to the red blood cells which are immersed in distilled water for half an hour?

A. They will expand and burst

B. They will elongate and flatten.

C. The wil crenate and become smaller in size.

D. The size remains the same.

21. The diagrams shows the cells organelles involved in the synthesis of proteins.

Which of the following statements are true about the diagrams?

W: synthesis of protein occurs at Q

X: The synthesised proteins are modified in R.

Y: Choromosomes in P carry the information for the synthesis of proteins.

Z: The proteins travel through T without any change and is then released through S.

A. W and Y only

B. X and Z only

C. W, X and Y only

D. X, Y and Z only

22. Which structure does not produce enzymes capable of digesting carbohydrates?

A. Salivary glands

B. Stomach

C. Pancreas

D. Ileum

23. Chiew is a healthy student who loves football and hiking. Even if Chiew's diet unbalanced, it is very unlikely that he would suffer a deffiency of

A. Iron

B. Protein

C. Calcium

D. Vitamin D

24. Which of the following is not how carbon dioxide is transported in the human body?

A. In the form of carbaminohaemoglobin

B. As dissolved carbon dioxide in the blood plasma

C. In the form of bicarbonate ions

D. In the form oxyhaemoglobin

25. The following information is about respiration.

P: Incomplete breakdown of glucose

Q: Takes place in the mitochondria

R: Produces lactic acid and energy

S: Produces two molecules of ATP for every molecule of glucose oxidised

Which statements are relevant to the process of anaerobic respiration in animals?

A. P and R only

B. Q and S only

C. P, R, and S only

D. P, Q and R only

26. Which sequence shows the hierarchy of classification of organisms from the smallest unit to the largest unit?

A. species > family > genus > class > order > phylum > kingdom

B. species > genus > family > order > class > phylum > kingdom

C. species > phylum > genus > class > order > family > kingdom

D. species > genus > phylum > order > class > family > kingdom

27. If the water of a lake contains trace amounts of DDT, which organism would have the highest concentration of DDT in its body?

A. A fish

B. A shrimp

C. A wild duck

D. Lactic acid

28. The graph shows the uptake and release of carbon dioxide in a green plant under different light intensities

What can be deduced from the graph?

P: At a light intensity of 1 unit, only respiration take place.

Q: At a light intensity of 2 units, the plant reaches the compensation point.

R: At a light intensity of 2 units, there is no net uptake of carbon dioxide from the surroundings.

S: At a light intensity of 9 units, the rate of photosynthesis is higher than that of respiration.

A. P and R only

B. P, Q and S only

C. Q, R and S only

D. P, Q, R, and S

29. Which human activities contribute to global warming?

A. Open burning and acid rain

B. Deforestation and eutrophication

C. Combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation

D. The use of unleaded petrol and thermal pollution

30. Which substance is not found in the lymph?

A. Erythrocytes

B. Leucocytes

C. Fatty acids

D. Carbon dioxide

31. Which statements concerning lymphocytes are correct?

P: They can engulf pathogens through phagocytosis

Q: Their actions are specific

R: They can produce antibodies

S: They can be found in large numbers in lymph nodes

A. P and Q only

B. Q and S only

C. P, Q and S only

D. Q, R and S only

32. Why do auxins produce different effects on the growth of plant roots and shoots?

A. Gravity affects the action of auxins

B. The growth rates of roots and shoots are different.

C. The effect of light on the action of auxin in the shoots is more than its action on the roots.

D. Plant roots and shoots respond differently to similar auxin concentrations.

33. Which of the following is not a reflex action?

A. The withdrawal of an arm from a hot object.

B. The kicking of leg when the knee is tapped.

C. The blinking of eyes when an object moves towards them.

D. Screaming at a boy who is about to cross a busy street without looking.

34. Which cells contain the same number of chromosomes as a fertilised ovum?

A. Skin cells and oogonia

B. oogonia and red blood cells

C. Secondary oocytes and sperm cells

D. Red blood cells and sperm cells

35. The sex chromosome carried by a human sperm can

A. only be the X chromosome

B. only be the Y chromosome

C. either be the X and Y chromosome

D. either be XX or YY chromosomes

36. Which mature tissues do not contain DNA?

A. Phloem companion cells and phloem sieve tubes

B. Phloem sieve tubes and guard cells

C. Xylem vessels and phloem sieve tubes

D. Guard cells and xylem vessels.

37. The diagram shows the joint of human limb.

Which labelled part is tough and elastic?

38. *A boy runs very fast when he is chased by a dog.

Which reactions occur in the boy's body?

K: His breathing rate increases.

L: His body temperature increases.

M: His blood glucose level increases.

N: His metabolic rate increases.

A. K and M only

B. L and M only

C. K, L and N only

D. K, L, M and N

39. In an experiment to investigate the rate of transpiration in a plant, the amount of water absorbed is not the same as the amount of water lost.

Which of the following explain the above statement?

P: Water is stored in the vacuoles to maintain turgidity of cells.

Q: Water acts as a medium for biochemical reactions in the cells.

R: Water is used during photosynthesis.

S: Water is used to maintain the temperature of the plant.

A. P and Q only

B. R and S only

C. P, R and S only

D. P, Q, R and S

40. In humans, haemophilia is the result of an X-linked chromosomal mutation. If a normal female who is non-carrier marries a male who is a haemophiliac, what are the phenotypes of their children?

A. Half of their daughter are normal and half of their sons are haemophiliacs

B. All their sons are normal and all their daughters are carriers

C. All their daughters are normal and all their sons are carriers.

D. All their sons are normal and all their daughters are haemophiliacs.

41. What is most common substance in cells?

A. Carbohydrates

B. Minerals

C. Amino acids

D. Water

42. In cell organisation, the leaf is classified as

A. a cell

B. a tissue

C. an organ

D. a system

43. Which of the following gases cause acid rain?

A. Oxygen of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide

B. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

C. Oxygen of nitrogen and carbon monoxide

D. Carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide

44. Which leucocyte produce antibodies?

A. Neutrophils

B. Lymphocytes

C. Monocytes

D. Basophils

45. Which organ functions in the endocrine and digestive systems?

A. The liver

B. The pancreas

C. The pituitary gland

D. The adrenal gland

46. What would happen if the bile duct is blocked?

A. Digestion of carbohydrates would be reduced.

B. Fat digestion would be reduced.

C. Protein digestion would be slow down.

D. The content of the duodenum would be neutralised faster.

47. Chiew has an extra finger on both hands. His condition is caused by

A. a gene mutation

B. a chromosomal mutation

C. exposure to radiation

D. an increase in his chromosomal number

48. Which organelle plays an important role in synthesis of proteins?

A. Ribosome

B. Chloroplast

C. Lysosome

D. Mitochondrion

49. Which process is not an example of diffusion?

A. Uptake of oxygen by unicellular organisms

B. Uptake of sodium ions by aquatic plants living in ponds

C. Movement of ammonia gas from an open glass chamber into the air

D. Evaporation of water vapour through the stomata to the atmosphere

50. Which events take place during meiosis I ?

K: Crossing over

L: The separation of sister chromatids

M: Synapsis of homologous chromosomes

N: The alignment of chromosomes at the metphase plate

A. K and L only

B. K and M only

C. L and N only

D. M and N only

51. Which statement is correct?

A. In tube W, the rate of photosynthesis is greater thn the rate of respiration.

B. In tube X, the rate of respiration is more or less equal to the rate of photosynthesis.

C. In tube Y, the rate of photosynthesis is lower than the rate of respiration.

D. In tube Z, the rate of respiration is lower than the rate of photosynthesis.

52. What is correct sequence of digestive enzymes which take part in albumen digestion in the alimentary canal?

A. salivary amylase, pepsin, trypsin, bile and erepsin.

B. salivary amylase, trypsin, bile and erepsin.

C. pepsin, trypsin, bile and erepsin.

D. pepsin, trypsin and erepsin.

53. The muscle of a runner who is exercising vigorously obtains instant energy from the

A. ATP stored inside the muscle

B. Conversion of glycogen into glucose

C. Oxidation of lipid molecules into musle

D. Oxidation of glucose in the muscle into ATP and carbon dioxide

54. The diagram shows the set-up of an experiment.

Which substances in cigarette smoke can be detected by the apparatus set-up shown?

A. Tar only

B. Tar and nicotine

C. Nicotine and oxides of nitrogen

D. Tar, nicotine and oxides of nitrogen

55. What is the correct sequence of blood flow through the right side of the human heart?

A. right atrium -> tricuspid valve -> right ventricle -> semi-lunar valve

B. right atrium -> bicuspid valve -> right ventricle -> semi-lunar valve

C. semi-lunar valve -> right atrium -> right ventricle -> bicuspid valve

D. semi-lunar valve -> right ventricle -> tricuspid valve -> right atrium

56. * P is a tree that produces fruits.

* Q is a green plant that lives on the branches of P.

* R lives on the bark of P but it does not have green leaves nor visible roots.

R feeds on the cell sap of the phloem tissue in P.

* S lives in the soil near the roots of P and feeds on dead leaves.

What types of nutrition are practised by organisms P, Q, R and S?

I P is an autotroph

II Q is a parasite

III R is a epiphyte

IV S is a saprophyte

A. I and III only

B. I and IV only

C. II, III and IV only

D. I, II, III and IV

57. In an experiment to study the effect of red light on photosynthesis, 500 cm3 of green alga culture was treated with 10 cm3 of sodium hydrogen carbonate solution containing radioactive carbon(NaH14 CO3). The culture solution was later divided into two equal portions and poured into bottles P and Q. Bottle Q was wrapped with black paper. Both the culture solutions were then exposed to red light for 15 minutes. The culture solutions were filtered and the contents measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. 1500 counts were recorded for the contents of bottle P and 4 counts for the contents of bottle Q.

Which statements about the experiment are correct?

P: Photosynthesis cannot occur in the dark.

Q: Red light is required for photosynthesis.

R: The glucose produced contains carbon-14

S: Carbon dioxide is supplied by the sodium hydrogen carbonate solution.

A. P, Q and R only

B. P, Q, and S only

C. Q, R and S only

D. P, Q, R and S

58. The diagram shows an adult heart.

Which sequence blood flow, beginning at the pulmonary arteries and passing through the lungs and systemic circulation, is correct?

A. 4 -> lungs -> 7 -> 5 -> 6 -> 3 -> systemic -> 2 -> 1

B. 7 -> 5 -> 6 -> 3 -> lungs -> 2 -> 1 -> 4 -> systemic

C. 2 -> 1 -> 4 -> lungs -> 7 -> 5 -> 6 -> 3 -> systemic

D. 3 -> 6 -> 5 -> 7 -> systemic -> 4 -> 1 -> 2 -> lungs

59. Which is the correct arrangement of vertebrae in the human vertebral column?

A. lumbar vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, cervical vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae

B. thoracic vertebrae, cervical vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, sacral vertebrae

C. cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae

D. cervical vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae

60. In the parental cross of TtSs x TtSs, how many possible gametescan be formed by each parent?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 4

D. 6
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